Biomolecules – Proteins

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Biomolecules – Proteins
➧ Proteins are Polypeptides
➧ They are linear chains of amino acids linked by peptide bonds.
➧ Each protein is a polymer of amino acids.
➧ Currently we have 20 types of amino acids , those are takes part in Protein Synthesis
➧ The amino acids join with the peptide bond and form polypeptide chain.
➧ Protein is a Heteropolymer and not a Homopolymer.
➧ Distance between two peptide bond– 0.35nm
➧ It Constiture 50% of dry weight.
➧ Proteins areforming colloidal comples in cell
Types of Proteins

❒ On the Basis of Structure

➧ Fibrous Protein

• Insoluble in water.
Example :- Collagen, Actin, Myosin, Keratin, Silk, Fibroin.
♦ Keratin (present in hair, wool, silk) and myosin (present in muscles)

➧ Globular proteins

• Usually soluble in water.
Example :- Histones, Insulin, Albumin, Hemoglobin, Globulin, Myoglobin, Gluten of Wheat.

Intermidiate Proteins

• Soluble in Water
Example :- Fibrinogen

❒ On the Basis of Composition

Simple protein
• Formed of Amino acids only

7types of Simple Proteins.
Albumin – Neutral, Soluble in water
Example :- Egg white, Blood Serum

Globulins – Neutral, not soluble in water
Example :- Antibodies in Blood.

Histone – Basic, Soluble in water.
Example :- Nucleosomal proteins.

Scleroproteins – Not soluble in water, Found only in animal kingdom.
Example :- Keratin, Elastin and Collagen proteins.

Protamine – Basic, Soluble in Ammonium Hydroxide.
Example :- Found in Sperm of Fish.

Glutelin – Soluble in dilute acids or bases.
Example :- Found in various cereals.

Prolamine – Insoluble in Water, Soluble in Alcohol.
Example :- Zein (Maize) , Gliadin(Wheat)

Conjugated protein
❖ 6 Types of Conjugated proteins …
Nucleoproteins
Example:- Proteins in Chromosomes , Structural proteins of Ribosome.

Chromoprotein
Example:- Haemoglobin, Haemocyanin

Phosphoprotein
Example:-Casein of Milk, Egg yolk

Glycoproteins
Example:-Glucosamine, Galactosamine

Lipoproteins
Example:- Membrane proteins

Metaloproteins
Example:-
Protein conjugated with metalic ion like Iron (Haemoglobin), Copper(Haemocyanin), Magnesium, Cobalt, Manganese

Derived protein
Example:-Metaprotein, proteose, Peptone, Peptide.

On the Basis of Ionic nature

➧ Acid proteins – Most of the blood proteins.
➧ Basic Protein – Histone

On the Basis of Function

Respiratory Proteins
Example:- Hemoglobin , Hemerythrin, Hemocyanin

Structural proteins
Example:- Collagen, Keratin, Actin, Elastin

Enzyme
Example:- Liapase, Nitrogenase, DNA Polyymerase

Hormones
Example:- Insulin, Glucagon

Transport Proteins
Example:- Serum albumin

Storage proteins
Example:-Ferritin, Casein, Gluten

Toxins
Example:- Snake venom

Contract Proteins
Example:- Actin,Myosin

Interesting Facts about Proteins
➧ The term Protein means ➥ To Occupy first rank
➧ Protein term first time suggested by ➥ Berzileus
➧ Protein term first time used by ➥ G.J Mulder
➧ Most abundant and variable macromolecules of the cel.
➧ Constituted ➥ 50% of dry weight.
➧ In a bacterial cell ➥ 1000-2000 types of proteins are present
➧ Each cell has ➥ unique kind of proteins.
➧ Proteins are the ➥ body building materials of the organisms.
➧ Insulin ➥ made up of 51 amino acids
➧ Haemoglobin ➥ made up of 574 amino acids
➧ Proteins are forming ➥ colloidal complex in cell.
➧ Most abundant protein in Animal World ➥ Collagen
➧ Most abundant protein in the whole of the Biosphere ➥ RuBisCO
➧ RuBisCO ➥ Ribulose bisphosphate Carboxylase-Oxygenase.
➧ The sequence of amino acid is determined by the message of DNA molecule (which are carried by mRNA)
➧ Helical Model of protein discovered by — Pauling and Corey

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