Here is the updated list of Biosphere Reserves of India. At present India has 18 biosphere reserves. Latest Biosphere reserve Panna biosphere reserve, which is located in Madhya Pradesh. Recently (in 2020) Panna National Park in Madhya Pradesh has been declared a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve under MAB programme.
What is a Biosphere?
▶ The Biosphere is a region of the surface, atmosphere, and hydrosphere of the earth occupied by living organisms.
▶ The biosphere is divided into regions called biomes.
▶ Biomes are the largest of the five organizational levels. Scientists classify biomes into five main types —
What are Biosphere Reserves?
▶ The Biosphere Reserves are the specific region of a biome reserved for conservation of all forms of life, along with its support system.
▶ The Biosphere Reserves are identified not only to protect its flora and fauna of the protected region, but also to the human communities who inhabit these regions, and their ways of life.
What are the benefits of Biosphere Reserves?
▶ Biosphere reserves ensure the sustainable development of the region by encouraging wise use of natural and human resources.
▶ They provide practical ways to resolve land use conflicts and to protect biological diversity.
▶ Biosphere reserves can be used for the academic and government research activity that addresses local issues and problems.
▶ Biosphere reserves encourage diverse local economies to revitalize rural areas.
▶ The biosphere reserves enhance the livelihood of the local community or the tribal people living in that region.
The three functions of biosphere reserves
▶ Each biosphere reserve is intended to fulfill three basic functions
▶ 1. Conservation of Biodiversity
• To contribute to the conservation of landscapes, ecosystems, species and genetic variation.
▶ 2. Sustainable Development
• To foster economic and human development which is socio-culturally and ecologically sustainable.
▶ 3. Support for Logistics
• To provide support for research, monitoring, education and information exchange related to local, national and global issues of conservation and development.
Who introduce the designation of ‘Biosphere Reserve’
▶ The UNESCO has introduced the designation ‘Biosphere Reserve’ for natural areas to minimize conflict between development and conservation.
▶ The UNESCO Man and Biosphere Programme under the World Network of Biosphere Reserves launched in 1971.
Who nominates an area as a Biosphere Reserves?
▶ Biosphere reserves are nominated by national governments.
▶ The area or a region specified for biosphere reserved remains under the sovereign jurisdiction of the states where they are located.
UNESCO Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Programme
▶ The World Network of Biosphere Reserves of the MAB Programme fosters the harmonious integration of people and nature for sustainable development through ….
• Participatory dialogue
• Knowledge sharing
• Poverty reduction
• Human well-being improvements
• Respect for cultural values
• Society’s ability to cope with change.
▶ To improve human livelihoods , the MAB combines natural and social sciences, economics and education.
▶ In one words it is a main international tools to develop and implement sustainable development approaches in a wide array of contexts.
Structure of Biosphere Reserve
▶ To carry out the complementary activities of biodiversity conservation and sustainable use of natural resources, biosphere reserves are traditionally organized into three interrelated zones, known as the ..
1. Core area
2. The buffer zone
3. Transition zone or ‘area of cooperation.’
◘ Core area
• Strictly protected zone
• It is for the conservation of landscapes, ecosystems, species and genetic variation.
◘ Buffer zone
• Limited restriction compared to Core area.
• It is the area surrounded by the core zone.
• This region used for the scientific research, monitoring and education.
◘ Transition zone
• Also known as Manipulation Zone.
• Several human activities like, human settlement, cultivation of crops, forestry allowed here.
Number of Biosphere Reserves, Current Status
▶ At present India has 18 biosphere Reserves.
▶ Out of 18 biosphere reserves Twelve biosphere reserves are part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves, based on the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Programme list.
▶ The World Network of Biosphere Reserves currently counts 714 sites in 129 countries all over the world, including 21 transboundary sites.
List of Biosphere reserves of India
|1||Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve||1986||Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Karnataka|
|2||Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve||1988||Uttarakhand|
|3||Gulf of Mannar||1989||Tamil Nadu|
|8||Dihang – Dibang||1998||Arunachal Pradesh|
|9||Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve||1999||Madhya Pradesh|
|10||Achanakmar-Amarkantak Biosphere Reserve||2005||Madhya Pradesh, Chhattishgarh|
|11||Great Rann of Kutch||2008||Gujarat|
|12||Cold Desert||2009||Himachal Pradesh|
|13||Khangchendzonga National Park||2000||Sikkim|
|14||Agasthyamalai Biosphere Reserve||2001||Kerala, Tamil Nadu|
|15||Great Nicobar Biosphere Reserve||1989||Andaman and Nicobar Islands|
|17||Seshachalam Hills||2010||Andhra Pradesh|
List of Key Fauna of Biosphere reserves
|1||Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve||Nilgiri tahr, tiger, lion-tailed macaque|
|2||Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve||Snow leopard, Himalayan black bear|
|3||Gulf of Mannar||Dugong|
|5||Sundarbans||Royal Bengal tiger|
|6||Manas||Asiatic elephant, tiger, Assam roofed turtle, hispid hare, golden langur, pygmy hog|
|7||Simlipal||Gaur, Asian elephant|
|8||Dihang – Dibang||Mishmi takin, musk deer|
|9||Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve||Giant squirrel, flying squirrel|
|10||Achanakmar-Amarkantak Biosphere Reserve||Four-horned antelope, Indian wild dog, sarus crane, white-rumped vulture, sacred grove bush frog|
|11||Great Rann of Kutch||Indian wild ass|
|12||Cold Desert||Snow leopard|
|13||Khangchendzonga National Park||Snow leopard, red panda|
|14||Agasthyamalai Biosphere Reserve||Nilgiri tahr, Asian elephant|
|15||Great Nicobar Biosphere Reserve||Saltwater crocodile|
|16||Dibru-Saikhowa||White-winged wood duck, water buffalo, black-breasted parrotbill, tiger, capped langur|
|17||Seshachalam Hills||Slender loris|
|18||Panna||tiger, leopard, chital, chinkara, nilgai, sambhar and sloth bear|
Biosphere reserves under UNESCO Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Programme list
|1. Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve||Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Karnataka||2000|
|2. Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve||Tamil Nadu||2001|
|3. Sundarbans Biosphere Reserve||West Bengal||2001|
|4. Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve||Uttarakhand||2004|
|5. Nokrek Biosphere Reserve||Meghalaya||2009|
|6. Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve||Madhya Pradesh||2009|
|7. Simlipal Biosphere Reserve||Odisha||2009|
|8. Great Nicobar Biosphere Reserve||Andaman & Nicobar Islands||2013|
|9. Achanakmar-Amarkantak Biosphere Reserve||Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh||2012|
|10. Agasthyamalai Biosphere Reserve||Kerala and Tamil Nadu||2016|
|11. Khangchendzonga National Park||Sikkim||2018|
|12. Panna Biosphere Reserve||Madhya Pradesh||2020|
Fact about the biosphere reserves of India
• Largest Biosphere Reserves of India – Great Rann of Kutch , Gujarat
• Smallest Biosphere Reserves of India – Dibru-Saikhowa, Assam.
• First Biosphere Reserves of India – Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve.
• Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve is a part of – Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, and Kerala.
• The Biosphere Reserves in India are declared by the – State or Central Government.
• The Man and Biosphere Programme (MAB) was launched by UNESCO in –1971
• India has how many Biosphere Reserves ? 18
• Nilgiri designated as Biosphere Reserve in the year – 1986.
• Latest Biosphere reserves of India ? – Panna Biosphere Reserve,Madhya Pradesh
• Panna Biosphere Reserve designated as Biosphere Reserve in the year (under UNESCO MAB) – 2020
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