Difference between Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic cells

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There are three types of cells ……
◘ Prokaryotic cells
◘ Eukaryotic cells
◘ Mesokaryotic cells

Conventionally on the basis of Nucleus the cells are of two types..◘ Prokaryotic cells
◘ Mesokaryotic cells

Prokaryotic cells
• Organism in which the nuclear material is not Bounded by a definite nuclear membrane are called Prokaryotes.
• It includes all the Bacteria and Blue Green Algae.
• Placed in Kingdom – Monera

Eukaryotic cells
• Organism in which the nuclear has a definite nuclear membrane is called Eukaryotic.
• It includes Kingdom Protista, Plantae , Fungi and Animali.
• The cells of Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes differ fundamentally in many ways.
• Prokaryote and Eukaryotic term proposed by Daughtery

Mesokaryotic cells
• Mesokaryotic term proposed by Dodge.
• In Mesokaryotic the nuclear membrane present in nucleus but internally Histone Proteins are absent in DNA, Which are required for chromosome formation.
• Dinoflagellate algae are the only Known Mesokaryotes.

Difference between Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic cells
Prokaryotic cells Eukaryotic cells
Nuclear Membrane • Lack of Nuclear membrane.
• Nuclear material remains exposed in the Cytoplasm.
• Such nucleus are known as Nucleoid or Genophore.
• Have a definite Nuclear membrane
Chromosomes • Genetic material consists of Double Stranded Circular DNA.
• It is not associated with Histone Protein.
• This circular DNA represents the Prokarytic nucleus called Nucleoid.
• On the other hand the Eukaryotic cells have DNA with histone protein in the form of Chromosomes
Cytoplasmic Organelles • no endoplasmic reticulum, golgi complex,mitochondria , lysosomes or centriols.
• All the Membrane bound cell organelles are absent in prokaryotic cell .
• Intracellular compartments are absent.
• The only cell organelle that is present in Prokaryotic cell is membrane less 70s Ribosomes.
• These are dispersed in the cytoplasm of prokaryotic cells that’s why the Cytoplasm of prokaryotic cell is granular.
• The Prokaryotic cells have only one envelops system. it means these have only a single membrane that is cell membrane.
• On the other hand eukaryotic cells have all the organelles and possess internal membrane system.
• The Ribosomes are of 80s type which are bounded to ER.
Cell Wall • The cell wall of Prokaryotes is made up of Peptidoglycan which is a Polymer of amino sugars and muramic acid.
• Pepridoglycan is polymer of the following ….
• N acetyl glucosamine
• N acetyl muramic acid
•While Eukaryotic cell is made up of cellulose which is a polymer of glucose
Cytoplasmic Movements • Protoplasmic movement is absent in Prokaryotes • while it occurs in Eukaryotes

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