Important amendments of Indian constitution

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Important amendments of Indian constitution

You can expect 2 to 3 questions from this topic ” amendments of Indian constitution” . Here we provide all the Important amendments of Indian constitution. This Particular topic is very important for various competitive or government exams like SSC, Raill, UPSC, State PSC’s , CDS etc. All the important points are in bold letters.

1st Constitutional Amendment Act, 1951
♦ Added 9th schedule to protect land reforms and other laws from the scrutiny of judicial review.
♦ Insertion of new Article 31A and Article 31 B.

♦ Amended Article 19 by adding three more ground of reasonable restriction on freedom of speech and expression.

  • Public order
  • Friendly relations with foreign states
  • Incitement to an offence.
4th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1956
State reorganization on a linguistic basis.
Abolished classification of states into four categories (A,B,C,D) and reorganized them into 14 states and 6 UTs.

♦ Extended jurisdiction of the High Court to union territories.
♦ Appointment of additional and acting judges of High Court.

♦ Insertion of new Article …

  • 350A  Instruction in mother-tongue at primary education to children belonging to linguistic minority.
  • 350B  Special Officer for linguistic minorities is provided in part XVII.
7th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1956
♦ Facilitated the appointment of the same person as a governor for two or more states.
8th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1960
♦ Extended reservation of seats for the SCs and STs and special representation for Anglo-Indians in the Lok Sabha and state legislature.
24th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1971
♦ Amended Article 368 and Article 13, affirming the power of Parliament to amend any part of the Constitution including fundamental rights.

♦ When an amendment to the Constitution adopted by both Houses of Parliament is submitted to the President for his approval, he is obliged to give his consent.

25th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1971
♦ Curtailment of the fundamental right to property.
♦ Insertion of new Article 31 C, which provides that if any law is passed in order to give result to the DPSP contained in 39(b) and (c), that law will not be considered to be void on the ground that it removes or reduces any of the rights under Article 14, 19 or 31 and will not be challenged on the ground that it doesn’t give effect to those principles.
26th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1971
♦ Insertion of Article 363 A giving effect to the abolishment of Privy purse paid to former rulers of princely states.
42nd Constitutional Amendment Act, 1976 (Mini Constitution)
♦ Amendment in Preamble by addition of three words-

  • ‘Socialist’
  • ‘Secular’
  • ‘Integrity’

Addition of new Part IVA (Article 51 A) for fundamental duties.

Insertion of three new Articles regarding DPSP …..

  • Article 39 A – Free legal aid and Equal justice
  • Article 43A – Participation of workers in the management of industries
  • Article 48 A- Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wildlife.

♦ Curtailment of power of Supreme Court and High Court with respect to judicial review and writ jurisdiction.
Made Constitutional amendment beyond judicial review.
The tenure (period) of Lok Sabha and State Legislative assemblies raised to 6 years by amending Article 83 and Article 172.

Added new Part XIV regarding administrative tribunal and tribunal for other matters under Article 323 A and 323 B.

♦ Creation of All India Judicial Services under Article 236.
♦ Facilitated a Proclamation of emergency in operation in any part of the territory of India.

♦ Made President bound by the advice of Council of Ministers by amending Article 74.

♦ Amendment in Seventh Schedule by shifting five subjects from the state list to the concurrent list

♦ These are

  • Education
  • Forests
  • Weights and measures
  • Protection of wild animals and birds
  • Administration of justice.

♦ Extended one-time duration of President’s rule from six months to one year.

44th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1978
Substituted term ‘Armed rebellion’ with earlier ‘Internal disturbance’in case of national emergency.

♦ President can proclaim emergency only on the basis of written advice tendered by the cabinet.

Removal of right to property from the list of fundamental right and recognized as a mere legal right.

During national emergency fundamental right guaranteed under Article 20 and Article 21 cannot be suspended.

♦ Restored the original term of Lok Sabha and State Legislative assembly to five years.

♦ Restored the power of Election Commission in deciding matters related to election dispute of President, Vice-President, Prime Minister and Speaker of Lok Sabha.

61st Constitutional Amendment Act, 1988
Proposed to reduce the voting age from 21 years to 18 years for Lok Sabha and State legislative assembly election.
69th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1991
Granted the National Capital a special status among the Union territories to ensure stability and permanence.
73rd Constitutional Amendment Act, 1992
Added new Part IX that gave Constitutional status to the Panchayati Raj Institution.
♦ Inserted new Eleventh schedule having 29 functions of Panchayat.
74th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1992
♦ Granted Constitutional status to Urban Local Bodies.
Added ‘The Municipalities’ as new Part XI-A in the Constitution.
♦ Inserted Twelfth schedule having 18 functions of the municipality.
86th Constitutional Amendment Act, 2002
♦ Inserted new Article 21-A in the Constitution which provided for free and compulsory education to all children of the age of 6 to 14 years.Inserted Article 51-A as a fundamental duty which provided for the education of a child between the age of 6 and 14 years.

Changes in the DPSP Article 45 which provided free and compulsory education for all children up to the age of 14 years.

89th Constitutional Amendment Act, 2003
Creation of two separate bodies out of combined body namely

  • National Commission for Scheduled Castes’ under Article 338
  • National Commission for Scheduled Tribes’ under Article 338-A.
91st Constitutional Amendment Act, 2003
♦ Inserted new clause Article 75 (1A): provides that the total number of ministers, including the PM, in the COM shall not exceed 15% of the total number of members of LS.

♦ New clause Article 164(1A): Provides that the total number of ministers, including the CM, in the COM shall not exceed 15% of the total number of members of the State Legislative Assembly.

97th Constitutional Amendment Act, 2011
♦ It gave Constitutional protection to Co-operative societies by making the following changes.
Right to form Co-operative society as a fundamental right under Article 19.
Insertion of the new Directive Principle of State Policy under Article 43-B for promotion of Co-operative societies.
99th Constitutional Amendment Act, 2014
♦ Insertion of new Article 124-A which provided for the establishment of the National Judicial Appointments Commission (NJAC) for the appointment and transfer of judges of the higher judiciary. However, it was later struck down by apex court and held as unconstitutional and void.
100th Constitutional Amendment Act, 2015
♦ This amendment gave effect to the acquisition of territories by India and transfer of certain territories to Bangladesh in pursuance of the Land Boundary Agreement and its protocol entered into between the Governments of India and Bangladesh.
101st Constitutional Amendment Act, 2016
♦ Insertion of new Article 246-A, 269-A and 279-A for enrollment of Goods and Service Tax (GST) that made changes in Seventh Schedule and course of inter-state trade and commerce.

122th Constitution Amendment bill.

102nd Constitutional Amendment Act, 2018
♦ It provided constitutional status for the establishment of National Commission for Backward Classes (NCBC) under Article 338-B of the Constitution.
103rd Constitutional Amendment Act, 2019
10% reservation for in government jobs and educational institutions for the economically weaker section in the unreserved category.

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