ISRO Gaganyaan Mission: Exam-Oriented Key Details

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Context: Why in the News?

In a recent announcement, Prime Minister Narendra Modi revealed the identities of the four individuals set to embark on a journey to the low-Earth orbit for the Gaganyaan Mission by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO).

Names of The Four Astronauts

During his visit to the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre in Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, the Prime Minister disclosed details about the first-ever crewed Indian space mission. The four selected astronauts for this historic journey are:

  • Group Captain Prashanth Balakrishnan Nair
  • Group Captain Ajit Krishnan
  • Group Captain Angad Pratap
  • Wing Commander Subhanshu Shukla

These individuals have been chosen to be the pioneering astronauts on India’s maiden crewed space mission. Notably, a significant collaboration took place between ISRO and Glavkosmos, a subsidiary of the Russian space agency Roscosmos, as they signed a memorandum of understanding in June 2019 for the training of these four astronauts.

The comprehensive training program occurred at Russia’s Yuri Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Centre from February 2020 to March 2021, marking a crucial step in preparing for this historic space endeavor.

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What is the Gaganyaan Mission?

About the Mission

The Gaganyaan mission stands as a testament to ISRO’s prowess in human spaceflight. This mission aims to showcase India’s capability to conduct space travel with a human crew, sending them to an orbit 400 km above Earth and ensuring their safe return.

Gaganyaan Mission Cost

In terms of financial investment, the Gaganyaan Programme comes with an estimated cost of around Rs 9023 crore. This funding is allocated to various aspects of the mission, covering the intricate details and technologies required to achieve the successful execution of this significant space endeavor.

Gaganyaan Mission launch vehicle

For the Gaganyaan mission, the launch vehicle selected is the GSLV Mk III, alternatively known as LVM-3.

To ensure compliance with human safety standards, the GSLV Mk III has undergone reconfiguration and is now officially named Human-Rated LVM-3.

This modification highlights the detailed preparations and adaptations made to the launch vehicle to meet the specific requirements and safety considerations for carrying human crew members into space.

Gaganyaan Mission Astronauts Traning

The selected astronauts for the Gaganyaan mission will undergo their training in Russia. As part of this comprehensive training program, they will be acquainted with the experience of flying in weightless conditions.

This training is essential to prepare the astronauts for the unique challenges and conditions they will encounter during their space mission, ensuring their readiness and adaptability to the demands of space travel.

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Collaborative Endeavors

Collaborative Efforts for the Progress of India’s Gaganyaan Mission

To propel India’s Gaganyaan Mission forward, a collective effort is underway, bringing together various entities:

  • Indian Armed Forces
  • Defence Research Development Organization
  • Indian Meteorological Department
  • Indian maritime agencies, including the Indian Navy, Indian Coast Guard, Shipping Corporation of India, National Institute of Oceanography, and National Institute of Ocean Technology.
  • Academic institutes
  • CSIR Labs
  • Industry partners

This synergy of expertise and resources from diverse sectors underscores the holistic approach taken to ensure the success of the Gaganyaan Mission, reflecting the collaborative spirit driving India’s advancements in space exploration.

Aims & Objectives of Gaganyaan Mission:

Human Space Capability

The primary objective of the Gaganyaan mission is to showcase India’s prowess in launching human beings into low Earth orbit and ensuring their safe return to Earth.

This ambitious undertaking is geared towards demonstrating and establishing India’s capability in the field of human space travel.

Scientific Career

Beyond its technological milestones, the Gaganyaan mission aspires to catalyze inspiring individuals to pursue careers in Science and Technology within the country. By achieving this feat, the mission aims to encourage and ignite the passion for scientific exploration, fostering a new generation of talent in India’s scientific community.

Integral Components of the Gaganyaan Spacecraft

Orbital Module

At the heart of the Gaganyaan Mission lies the Orbital Module (OM), serving as the central hub that will gracefully orbit the Earth. Comprising both the Crew Module (CM) and Service Module (SM), the OM will boast advanced avionics systems, ensuring its efficiency and functionality.

Service Module

The Service Module is a critical component encompassing the propulsion system, thermal system, power systems, avionics systems, and deployment mechanisms. This comprehensive set of elements is designed to offer essential support to the Crew Module during its orbital journey.

Crew Module

Crafted to provide an Earth-like environment in the vastness of space, the Crew Module is tailored for the comfort and safety of the crew. It features crew interfaces, human-centric products, life support systems, avionics, and deceleration systems, collectively creating a conducive space for the astronauts during their mission.

Stages and Key Achievements of Gaganyaan Mission

Integrated AirDrop Test (IADT)

As a crucial segment of the Integrated Main Parachute Airdrop Test (IMAT) for the Parachute Deceleration System (PDS), a 5-ton dummy mass equivalent to the actual crew module was released from an altitude of 2.5 km by the Indian Air Force.

Pad Abort Test (PAT)

The Pad Abort Test serves as a critical trial to assess the spacecraft’s launch abort system. This system is designed to swiftly move the crew and spacecraft away from the rocket in the event of a potential failure.

Crew Abort Test Mission

In this mission, an unpressurized version of the crew module will be employed, incorporating systems for deceleration and recovery, including parachutes. Launched on a single-stage liquid rocket, the objective is to simulate an abort condition during the ascent trajectory corresponding to a Mach number of 1.2 in the Gaganyaan mission.

During the abort mission, the crew escape system and crew module will separate from the test vehicle at an altitude of approximately 17 km. Subsequently, the abort sequence will autonomously execute, leading to the deployment of a series of parachutes and ultimately ensuring the safe touchdown of the crew module in the Bay of Bengal.


Anticipated to be part of the second uncrewed Gaganyaan mission, Vyomitra, a humanoid robot, is set to perform microgravity experiments and monitor module parameters. Simulating functions like a human from the waist up, Vyomitra can detect and issue warnings in the event of environmental changes within the cabin, ensuring the astronauts’ comfort.

Manned Flight

The pinnacle of the Gaganyaan mission, the manned flight involves launching a human astronaut into space and safely escorting them back to Earth through a soft landing in the Arabian Sea off the coast of Gujarat. While previous components focused on safety, this marks the culmination of the mission with a human presence in space.

Benefits of the Gaganyaan Mission

Innovation Environment

The Gaganyaan mission is poised to ignite an atmosphere of innovation and creativity in the country, serving as a catalyst to inspire the next generation of students.

Manned Missions

Beyond its immediate goals, the Gaganyaan mission plays a pivotal role in advancing critical technology for future scientific human space exploration.

Employment Creation

The majority of components and technologies required for the mission are developed domestically, leading to the creation of employment opportunities within the private sector.

Private Sector Growth

The mission’s success is expected to spur investment from the private sector into space technologies, contributing to the growth of this industry.

Human Beneficial Technology

The technology developed for the Gaganyaan Mission holds promise for the betterment of society, with applications that can positively impact various aspects of human life.

International Collaboration

India’s technological prowess demonstrated through the Gaganyaan mission is set to open avenues for future international collaboration in the field of space exploration.

Interdisciplinary Collaboration

The mission will foster collaboration across numerous agencies, disciplines, laboratories, industries, and departments, showcasing the interdisciplinary nature of space exploration.

Industry-Academia Partnership

In promoting the Academia-Industry partnership, the Gaganyaan mission contributes to the collaborative development activities crucial for national development, reinforcing the synergy between educational institutions and industries.

Human Survival Technologies

The development of technologies essential for human survival in space presents a significant challenge for ISRO, requiring the creation of these systems from the ground up, resulting in a time-consuming process.

Human Training

Due to the limited availability of suitable facilities in India, astronauts chosen for the Gaganyaan mission have undergone their training abroad, emphasizing the global collaboration required for such ventures.

Cost Effectiveness

Ensuring the success of the mission is not the sole objective; it must also be achieved with cost-effectiveness in mind. Striking a balance between low-cost solutions and highly effective technology poses a considerable challenge.

Human Safety

The paramount challenge in the upcoming stages of the mission is to safely bring human astronauts back to Earth, requiring meticulous planning and execution to guarantee their well-being.

Long-term Impact on the Human Body

Additionally, the long-term impact of space conditions on the human body is a factor that cannot be overlooked. Addressing the physiological effects of extended space travel is an ongoing consideration in the planning and execution of the mission.

Route to Success: Guaranteeing Precision and Excellence in Gaganyaan Mission

Meticulous Testing

To ensure the flawless execution of the mission, every technology employed will undergo meticulous testing, aiming to identify and rectify any potential issues that may arise during the mission.

Best Practices

ISRO is committed to implementing the best global practices throughout the mission, drawing on international expertise. This collaborative approach includes close consultation with the Russian space agency, emphasizing the exchange of knowledge and adherence to established standards.

High-Quality Training

Astronaut candidates are undergoing high-quality training, equipping them to overcome both physical and mental challenges they may encounter during the mission. This emphasis on comprehensive training reflects ISRO’s dedication to preparing astronauts for the demands of space exploration.


While the Gaganyaan mission may not carry substantial international implications, its success holds the potential to serve as a significant morale booster for our scientific community. This achievement will not only instill pride within the nation but also inspire and uplift the spirits of our dedicated scientists and researchers.

Furthermore, the success of the Gaganyaan mission could play a pivotal role in shaping the future of space tourism in the country. By showcasing India’s capabilities in human spaceflight, the mission may pave the way for the development of the space tourism sector, offering new possibilities and ventures for exploration and commercial activities within the realm of space travel.

Comprehensive Insight into ISRO: The Indian Space and Research Organisation

About ISRO

ISRO, the premier space agency of India, serves as the primary research and development arm of the Department of Space, operating under the oversight of the Prime Minister of India. Established in 1969, its headquarters are located in Bengaluru. ISRO took over from INCOSPAR (Indian National Committee for Space Research), founded in 1962.


The primary objective of ISRO is to develop and harness space technology for national development while concurrently engaging in planetary exploration and space science research.


First Satellite: ISRO’s inaugural satellite, Aryabhatta, was constructed in 1975 and launched with Soviet Union assistance on April 19, 1975.

SLV-3 and Rohini: Rohini, the first satellite to be successfully placed in orbit by an Indian-made launch vehicle, SLV-3, marked a significant milestone in India’s space capabilities.

Cryogenic Technology: ISRO achieved global recognition by becoming one of the six countries in the world possessing cryogenic technology. This milestone was reached with the launch of the GSAT-14 satellite using the GSLV-D5 launch vehicle.

Regional Satellite Navigation – NAV: ISRO operates India’s indigenous regional navigation system known as NAVIC. This positions India among a select group of countries with autonomous satellite-based navigation capabilities.

ISRO’s journey encompasses a series of pioneering achievements, solidifying its standing as a formidable player in the global space arena.


AI Content Disclosures:

All the data is sourced from the mentioned website, and AI tools like Bing Copilot and ChatGPT have been utilized to refine the language and structure of the content. Additionally, I have added subheadings for improved organization.

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As a professional blogger and passionate educator, I am driven by a deep-seated desire to share knowledge and empower others. With years of experience in the field, I am committed to providing valuable insights and guidance to aspiring learners. My passion lies in helping individuals discover their potential and achieve their goals. I am also a firm believer in the power of motivation and strive to inspire others to pursue their dreams with unwavering determination.

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