LED full form

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What is the full form of LED bulb?

• The full form of LED is Light Emitting Diode.

• A light-emitting diode (LED) is a PN-junction diode.

• As the name suggests, it emits light when an electric current passes through it in the forward path.

• The recombination of electrons (N-side) and electron holes (P-side) in a semiconductor produces light and this process is called “electroluminescence”.

• LEDs emit light through diode junctions and can be infrared, visible, or ultraviolet.

• The color of an LED depends on the semiconductor material used and the amount of doping.

• Forward-biased LEDs will emit light of different colors at different spectral wavelengths.

LED Symbol

LED Symbol Diagram
LED Symbol

How LEDs Produce Different Colors

Photons of different wavelengths are the reason behind an LED producing different colours.

• The wavelength of the light depends on the energy band gap of the semiconductors used.

• Different semiconductor compounds produce light of different intensity levels because they emit light in specific regions of the visible light spectrum.

• The choice of semiconductor material used to make the LED will determine the wavelength of photon emission.

LED Color by semiconductor material

• Indium gallium nitride (InGaN): Blue, Green, and Ultraviolet LEDs.

• Aluminum gallium indium phosphide (AlGaInP): Yellow, Orange, and Red LEDs.

• Aluminum gallium arsenide (AlGaAs): Red and Infrared

• Gallium phosphide (GaP): Yellow and Green LEDs

What are the advantages of LEDs?

Long Life

• It offers a significantly longer life than conventional light sources.

Low maintenance

• Due to its long life, it has reduced the cost and difficulty of maintenance and replacement.

High brightness

• LEDs produce high lumen output, ensuring the brightness of white and coloured light.

Exceptional range of colour

• Dynamic colour, and tunable white-light LED luminaires can produce millions of colors.


• 5 times more energy-efficient than incandescent and halogen sources – reducing costs while minimizing environmental impact.

Environment Friendly

• LEDs do not contain harmful elements such as mercury, lead or cadmium. Increased use of LED lights can reduce carbon emissions.

Low radiated heat

• LEDs do not emit infrared radiation, they can be installed in heat-sensitive areas, near people and materials, and in small spaces where accumulated heat can be dangerous.

High reliability

• LEDs have no moving parts of filaments like other traditional bubs, that can break or fail.

• LEDs can operate in cold temperatures and withstand impact and vibration, making them suitable for extreme environments or difficult to access.

No UV rays or infrared radiation

• LEDs do not emit harmful UV rays that can corrode materials or discolor paints and dyes, so they are ideal for use in retail stores, museums, and art galleries.

Applications of LED

Indicators and signs

• Traffic Signal
• LED displays
• Exit signs
• Emergency vehicle lighting
• Ships’ navigation lights
• LED-based Christmas lights
• Indicator light of different electronics devices


• LED lamps
• LED Street lights
• Automotive lighting on cars
• Cabin lighting on Airbus and Boeing
• Flashlights
• LED strobe lights
• Camera flashes

Data communication and signaling

• Infrared LED remote-controlled device
• Assistive listening devices
• Light signals in various electronic devices

Machine vision systems
• Barcode scanners

Biological detection
• Detection of biological aerosols (UV LED)

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