List of Nuclear power plants in India 2021

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India has 7 nuclear power plants and 23 nuclear reactors. Nuclear power contributes only 1.84% of the India’s total energy needs. Here is the complete list of nuclear power plants and questions about nuclear power plants.

Nuclear power plants in India
List of Nuclear power plants in India

Nuclear Energy of India

India stands 13th in the world in terms nuclear capacity.

• Nuclear power contributes a little over 1.8% of our total energy generated at present.

• The United States is the largest producer of nuclear power, while France has the largest share of electricity generated by nuclear power. 

Top 5 countries by Nuclear power production
1. United States – (Number of Reactors 96)
2. France – (Number of Reactors 58)
3. China -(Number of Reactors 50)
4. Russia – (Number of Reactors 39)
5. Japan – (Number of Reactors 33)

Nuclear power is the fifth-largest source of electricity in India after coal, gas, hydroelectricity and wind power.

• As of November 2020, India has 23 nuclear reactors in operation in 7 nuclear power plants, with a total installed capacity of 7,480 MW.

• Previously India has 22 nuclear reactors in operation in 7 nuclear power plants , with a total installed capacity of 6780 MW.

• On January 10, 2021, one more reactor, KAPP-3 (Kakrapar Nuclear Power Plant – 3) has been connected to the grid.

• The capacity of KAPP-3 is 700 MW.

• The KAPP-3 is India’s indigenously developed Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR).

• 10 more reactors are under construction with a combined generation capacity of 8,000 MW.

• All the 7 nuclear power plants in India operated by Nuclear Power Corporation of India (NPCIL).

• In October 2010, India drew up a plan to reach a nuclear power capacity of 63 GW in 2032.

• The existing nuclear power capacity of 6,780 MW is proposed to be increased to 22,480 MW by 2031.

List of Nuclear Power Plants in India

SL.NO Plant Name State
1. Kaiga Karnataka
2. Kakrapar Gujarat
3. Kudankulam Tamil Nadu
4. Kalapakkam Chennai , Tamil Nadu
5. Narora Uttar Pradesh
6. Rawatbhata Rajasthan
7. Tarapur Maharshtra
List of Nuclear Power Plants of India Map
List of active and planned  Nuclear Power Plants of India Map

 

You can visit the official website of the Government of India for more info about all the Nuclear Power Plants in India

To visit official site Click Here

 

Planned Nuclear Power plants in India

SL.NO Plant Name State
1. Kovvada Andhra Pradesh
2. Kavali Andhra Pradesh
3. Gorakhpur Haryana
4. Banswara Rajasthan
5. Chutka Madhya Pradesh
6. Jaitpur Maharashtra
7. Kaiga Karnataka
8. Mithi Virdi Gujarat
9. Bhimpur Madhya Pradesh

Nuclear Powe Plants and Reactors under Construction

SL. No Unit Under Construction State
1. Kakrapar – Unit 3 & 4 Gujarat
2. Rawatbhata – Unit 7 & 8 Rajasthan
3. Kudankulam Unit – 3 & 4 Tamil Nadu
4. Gorakhpur Haryana
5. Chennai (Kalpakkam) Tamil Nadu

Assisted Country of the some of the Nuclear Power Plants in India

Sl.No Nuclear Power Plant Assisted Country
1. Kudankulam Russia
2. Tarapur USA
3. Rawatbhata Canada
4. Jaitpur France

Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC)

•  In India the nuclear power program was initiated in the year 1940, after the  incorporation of the Tata Atomic Research Commission in August 1948.

• Although the real progress was made only after the establishment of the Atomic Energy Institution at Trombay in 1954.

• In the year 1967 the Atomic Energy Institution at Trombay renamed as the ‘Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC)’.

• The first nuclear power station with 320 MW capacity was set up at Tarapur near Mumbai in 1969.

• Headquarter of BARC is located in Trombay, Mumbai, Maharashtra.
• BARC was Founded by the Indian nuclear physicist Homi Jehangir Bhabha.
• He is the “Father of the Indian nuclear programme”.
• Bhabha was awarded the Adams Prize (1942) and Padma Bhushan (1954).

• Bhabha Atomic Research Centre operates under the Department of Atomic Energy(DAE).

• BARC conducts extensive and advanced research and development covering the entire spectrum of electronics, instrumentation, chemical engineering, biology and medicine, nuclear science, material sciences and metallurgy,   advance computing, high-energy plasma physics and associated research for Indian nuclear program and related areas.

Three-stage nuclear power programme of India

Why we need the three-stage nuclear power programme

• Most of the nuclear reactor in the world used uranium-233, uranium-235 and plutonium-239 as a fuel or fissile material.

• But India has only 1-2% of the global Uranium reserves.

• But the good news is India has 25% of the Thorium (Th-232) reserves.
• Here the problem is we cannot use Thorium as a fissile material. Because Th-232 is not an ideal feul for producing nuclear power.

• To use these Thorium-232 it must be transmuted to Uranium-233 in a reactor fueled by other fissile materials(Pu-239 or U-235)

• Hence a three stage nuclear program was designed to finally use the vast resources of Thorium in the third stage.

Initiation of the Three-stage nuclear power programme in India

• India’s three-stage nuclear power programme was formulated by Homi Bhabha and Jawaharlal Nehru in the 1950s.

• The ultimate focus of the 3-stage programme is the optimum use of the vast thorium reserve of India to fulfil the country’s energy requirements.

• The three stages are:-
1. Stage I – Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR)
2. Stage II – Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR)
3. Stage III – Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR)

Details about the Three-stage nuclear power programme of India

Stage I – Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR)

• Fuel or Input material :- Natural Uranium (U-238)
• Moderator used :- Heavy water
• Byproduct of stage I – Plutonium – 239

• Natural uranium contains only 0.7% of the fissile isotope uranium-235.
• Most of the remaining 99.3% is uranium-238 which is not fissile, but can be converted in a reactor to the fissile isotope plutonium-239.
• Heavy water (deuterium oxide, D2O) is used as moderator and coolant.
• Instead of using PHWR we can also use the Light Water Reactor (LWR) but the LWR needed enriched uranium.

• And in case of India it would be easier to create heavy water production facilities (which required for PHWRs) than uranium enrichment facilities (required for LWRs).

• The byproduct of stage-I (Pu-239) would be used in later stages.

Enrichment of Uranium
Enrichment of Uranium
Stage II – Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR)

• Fuel or Input material – Plutonium-239 (byproduct of stage-I)
• Moderator used – Not required
• Byproduct of stage II – mixed oxide (MOX) fuel. [Plutonium – 239 and uranium-238]

• In this stage the fuel, plutonium-239 undergoes fission to produce energy.
• While the uranium-238 present in the mixed oxide fuel transmutes to additional plutonium-239.

• Thus, the Stage II produced more Pu-239 than it consumes. Hence, it is called a breeder reactor.

• The design of the country’s first fast breeder, called Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR).

• The Prototype of Fast Breeder Reactor was developed by the Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR).

• Bharatiya Nabhikiya Vidyut Nigam Ltd (Bhavini), a public sector company under the
Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), has been given the responsibility to build the fast breeder reactors in India.
• The construction of this PFBR was started at Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu.

• After sufficient stock of Pu-239 is made, Thorium will be used to produce U-233 which will be used in the third stage.

Transmuted of Thorium
Transmuted of Thorium
Stage III – Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR)

• The main purpose of stage III is to achieve a sustainable nuclear fuel cycle.
• Fuel – U-233 and Thorium – 232
• This stage, also known as Thorium based reactors, as it used natural thorium as a fuel.

Stage III - Self Sustaining Cycle
Stage III – Self Sustaining Cycle

Thorium deposits of India

• Thorium is a chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90.
• Thorium is found in small amounts in most rocks and soils.
• Soil typically contains an average of round 6 parts per million (ppm) of thorium.

•  Most common minerals of Thorium _

  1. Thorite (ThSiO4)
  2. Thorianite (ThO2 + UO2)
  3. Monazite

• Thorianite is a rare mineral and may contain up to about 12% thorium oxide.

• Monazite contains 2.5% thorium.
• The Monazite sand is widely scattered on the Coast of Kerala.

• Thorium concentrations near the surface of the earth can be mapped using gamma spectroscopy.

• In India thorium is mostly located in a contiguous belt of eastern coastal states.

• India’s thorium deposits, estimated at 360,000 tonnes.
• India’s thorium reserves make up 25 per cent of the global reserves.
• United States, Australia, and India have particularly large reserves of thorium.

Thorium Reserve of India
Monazite Sand Reserve of India

 

World Thorium Reserve
World Thorium Reserve

Frequently asked questions (FAQ)

1. How many nuclear power plants are in India?
• Answer – 7

2. How many nuclear power reactors are in India?
• Answer – 23

3. Which is the newly added nuclear power reactors of India?
• Answer – Kakrapar Nuclear Power Plant – 3

4. Who owns nuclear power plants in India?
• Answer – Government of India

5. Largest nuclear power plant in India?
• Answer- Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant
• Located in – Tamil Nadu

6. Which is the first nuclear power plant in India?
• Answer – Tarapur Atomic Power Station

7. What is the rank of India in using nuclear power?
• Answer – 13th

8. Who gave India nuclear technology?
• Answer – Homi Jehangir Bhabha

9. Oldest Nuclear Power plant in India?
• Answer – Tarapur Nuclear Reactor

10. Which state has most nuclear power plants in the world?
• Answer- Illinois
• Illinois is a state of USA.

11. World’s smallest nuclear power plant?
•Answer – EGP-6 (Russia)

12. Which country has most nuclear power plants?
• Answer – America (It has 93 nuclear power reactors)

13. What is the world’s largest nuclear power plant?
• Answer – Kashiwazaki-Kariwa plant in Japan
• Type – boiling water reactors (BWR)
• Gross installed capacity – 8,212MW.

14. World’s oldest nuclear power plant?
• Answer – Nine Mile Point 1 in New York

15. India’s first nuclear reactor?
• Answer- Apsara

16. KAMINI or Kalpakkam Mini reactor designed and built jointly by the ?
• Answer – Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) and Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research


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