Here is the updated list of Ramsar sites in India. Recently, India has recently increased its list of Ramsar sites by adding 11 new wetlands. This brings the total number of Ramsar sites in India to 75.
The topic of ‘Ramsar Sites in India’ is significant for upcoming competitive exams such as SSC, RRB NTPC, UPSC, and other state-level exams. This article provides a comprehensive overview of all the Ramsar sites in India, along with some past year exam questions.
About Ramsar Convention on Wetlands
▸ The Convention on Wetlands provides the framework for international cooperation and national action for the conservation and wise use of wetlands through local and national actions and international cooperation, as a contribution towards achieving sustainable development throughout the world”.
More than 255,897,678 ha hectares of wetland have been protected through this convention.
▸ February 2 is celebrated as the International Wetlands Day
❖ What is the theme of World Wetland Day 2023?
☞ The theme for 2023 is “It’s Time for Wetlands Restoration,” which highlights the urgent need to prioritize wetland restoration.
Why it’s called “Ramsar”
▸ As because the Convention on Wetlands was named after the Iranian city “Ramsar” which was adopted in the year 1971.
What are the three pillars of the Convention
▸ Under the three pillars of the Convention, the Contracting Parties commit to_
❖ work towards the wise use of all their wetlands through national plans, policies and legislation, management actions, and public education.
❖ Designate suitable wetlands for the list of Wetlands of International Importance (the “Ramsar List”) and ensure their effective management.
❖ Cooperate internationally on transboundary wetlands, shared wetland systems, shared species, and development projects that may affect wetlands.
What actually means by “Wise use of wetlands”?
▸ The Convention defines the wise use of wetlands as “the maintenance of their ecological character, achieved through the implementation of ecosystem approaches, within the context of sustainable development”. Wise use can thus be seen as the conservation and sustainable use of wetlands and all the services they provide, for the benefit of people and nature.
What are Wetlands?
▸ A wetland is a place where the land is covered by water, either salt, fresh, or somewhere in between.
▸ List of places which is considered wetland under the Ramsar Convention.
• All lakes
• Underground aquifers
• Swamps and Marshes
• Wet grasslands
• Deltas and tidal flats
• Mangroves and other coastal areas
• Coral reefs
• All human-made sites such as fish ponds, rice paddies, reservoirs, and salt pans
Major Significance of Wetlands
▸ Wetlands provide a range of ecosystem services that benefit humanity, including_
• Water filtration
• Storm protection
• Flood control
▸ People use wetlands in many other ways, including_
• Transportation of Goods and Passengers
• Irrigation purpose
• For Industrial use
• Cultivation of Paddy, Lotus,
• To decompose jute (for extracting jute fiber)
▸ Wetland helps to grow various agricultural products, such as_
• Paddy (which is a major food for half the world’s population.)
• Flower of commercial importance like Lotus, and water lilies.
• Aquatic vegetables like a water chestnut.
▸ Most of the wetlands act as the most productive habitats on the planet. Which often support high concentrations of animals, including mammals, birds, fish, and invertebrates, and serve as nurseries for many of these species.
Ramsar sites in India 2023, recent updates
Total Wetlands in India 2023
• According to the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change (MoEF&CC), India has 1239 wetlands, covering an area of 39,10,691.94 hectares.
• Out of 1239 wetlands, 75 wetlands belong to the Ramsar site and 115 wetlands belong to the significant wetlands.
• Significant Wetlands (SWs) are wetlands that have not yet been designated as Ramsar sites, but are most valuable in terms of biodiversity and importance.
Total Ramsar sites in India 2023
● At present India has 75 Wetlands, recognized under the Ramsar convention, with a surface area of 1326678 hectares.
• As of 9 December 2021, there were 47 Ramsar wetlands in India
• On 2 February 2022, India adds two more Ramsar sites upscaling the number from 47 to 49.
• On 26 July 2022, India added 5 more Ramsar sites to its existing list.
• On 3 August 2022, India added 10 more Ramsar sites to its existing list.
• On August 13, marking the 75th year of independence, India added 11 more Ramsar wetland sites to its existing list.
• Now the total number of Ramsar sites in India is 75.
Recently added (last 11) Wetland under The Ramsar Convention
1️⃣ Tampara Lake (Odisha)
2️⃣ Hirakud Reservoir (Odisha)
3️⃣ Ansupa Lake in (Odisha)
4️⃣ Yashwant Sagar (Madhya Pradesh)
5️⃣ Chitrangudi Bird Sanctuary (Tamil Nadu)
6️⃣ Suchindram Theroor Wetland Complex (Tamil Nadu)
7️⃣ Vaduvur Bird Sanctuary (Tamil Nadu)
8️⃣ Kanjirankulam Bird Sanctuary (Tamil Nadu)
9️⃣ Thane Creek (Maharashtra)
🔟 Hygam Wetland Conservation Reserve (Jammu and Kashmir)
1️⃣1️⃣ Shallbugh Wetland Conservation Reserve (Jammu and Kashmir)
Important info about the newly added wetlands
• Tampara Lake is a freshwater lake in Odisha (Ganjam district).
• Hirakud Reservoir, the largest earthen dam in Odisha started operating in 1957.
• Ansupa Lake (located in Cuttack) is the largest freshwater lake in Odisha.
• Vaduvur bird sanctuary is a large human-made irrigation tank.
• Hygam Wetland falls within the River Jhelum basin.
• Nanda Lake is the first wetland of Goa.
• Also, Ranganathittu Bird Sanctuary is the first Ramsar wetland site in Karnataka.
• Sakhya Sagar Lake is an integral part of the Madhav National Park in Shivpuri, Madhya Pradesh.
• The Pala wetland is the largest natural wetland in Mizoram.
• Pala wetland is Mizoram’s first wetland under the Ramsar convention.
• Asan Barrage is the first wetland from Uttarakhand.
• Sur Sarovar is also known as Khetam Lake
• Sur Sarovar is a Huaman-made reservoir.
• Lonar Lake was formed by a meteorite impact onto the basalt bedrock.
• The name Tso Kar refers to the white salt.
• Tso Kar is one of the most important breeding areas in India for the black-necked crane (Grus nigricollis).
• The Haiderpur wetland is located near the Bijnor Ganga Barrage within the Hastinapur Wildlife Sanctuary in Uttar Pradesh, India.
• The Bakhira Bird Sanctuary (48th Ramsar site) is the largest natural flood plain wetland of India in the Sant Kabir Nagar district of Eastern Uttar Pradesh.
• About 300 species of migratory birds have been recorded in the Khijadiya Bird Sanctuary. (49th Ramsar sites)
Ramsar sites around the world, Important Info
♦ The world’s first Site under the Ramsar convention was the Cobourg Peninsula in Australia, designated in 1974.
♦ The largest Sites under the Ramsar convention are_
• Rio Negro in Brazil (120,000 square km)
• Ngiri-Tumba-Maindombe in the Democratic Republic of Congo (60,000 square km)
• Queen Maud Gulf in Canada (60,000 square km)
♦ The countries with the most Sites are the…
• the United Kingdom with 175 sites and
• Mexico with 142 sites.
♦ Largest area under the Convention…
• Bolivia (total 148,000 square km)
♦ At present there are over 2,455 Ramsar Sites across the world, covering more than 255,792,244 hectares of surface area.
State-wise list of Ramsar sites in India (Total 75)
|1||Saman Bird Sanctuary||Mainpuri, Uttar Pradesh|
|2||Sur Sarovar||Agra, Uttar Pradesh|
|3||Sarsai Nawar Jheel||Etawah, Uttar Pradesh|
|4||Nawabganj Bird Sanctuary||Nawabganj, Uttar Pradesh|
|5||Samaspur Bird Sanctuary||Raebareli, Uttar Pradesh|
|6||Sandi Bird Sanctuary||Hardoi, Uttar Pradesh|
|7||Parvati Aranga Bird Sanctuary||Gonda, Uttar Pradesh|
|8||Upper Ganga River ||Brijghat to Narora Stretch, |
|9||Haiderpur Wetland||Muzaffarnagar-Bijnor border, |
|10||Bakhira Bird Sanctuary||Sant Kabir Nagar, Uttar Pradesh|
|14||Bhoj Wetland||Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh|
|15||Sakhya Sagar Lake||Shivpuri, Madhya Pradesh|
|16||Sirpur wetland||Indore, Madhya Pradesh|
|17||Yashwant Sagar||Madhya Pradesh|
|18||Nandur Madhameshwar||Nashik, Maharashtra|
|21||Keoladeo National Park||Rajasthan|
|23||Point Calimere Wildlife and Bird Sanctuary||Tamil Nadu|
|24||Karikili Bird Sanctuary||Tamil Nadu|
|25||Pallikaranai Marsh Reserve Forest||Tamil Nadu|
|26||Pichavaram Mangrove||Tamil Nadu|
|27||Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve||Tamil Nadu|
|28||Vembannur Wetland Complex||Tamil Nadu|
|29||Chitrangudi Bird Sanctuary||Tamil Nadu|
|30||Suchindram Theroor Wetland Complex||Tamil Nadu|
|31||Vaduvur Bird Sanctuary||Tamil Nadu|
|32||Kanjirankulam Bird Sanctuary||Tamil Nadu|
|33||Vellode Bird Sanctuary||Vadamugam Vellode, Tamil Nadu|
|34||Udhayamarthandapuram Bird Sanctuary||Tiruvarur, Tamil Nadu|
|35||Koonthankulam Bird Sanctuary||Koonthakulam, Tamil Nadu|
|36||Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary||Vedathangal, Madurantakam|
, Tamil Nadu
|38||Kolleru Lake||Andhra Pradesh|
|41||Hokera Wetland||Jammu & Kashmir|
|42||Wular Lake||Jammu & Kashmir|
|43||Surinsar-Mansar Lakes||Jammu & Kashmir|
|44||Hygam Wetland Conservation Reserve||Jammu & Kashmir|
|45||Shallbugh Wetland Conservation Reserve||Jammu & Kashmir|
|52||East Kolkata Wetlands||West Bengal|
|53||Sundarban Wetland||West Bengal|
|54||Keshopur-Miani Community Reserve||Punjab|
|55||Beas Conservation Reserve||Punjab|
|56||Nangal Wildlife Sanctuary||Punjab|
|60||Deepar Beel||Kamrup, Assam|
|61||Rudrasagar Lake||Melaghar, Tripura|
|62||Pong Dam Lake||Kangra, Himachal Pradesh|
|63||Chandra Lake||Lahul and Spiti, Himachal Pradesh|
|64||Renuka Lake||Sirmaur , Himachal Pradesh|
|65||Asan Barrage||Dehradun, Uttarakhand|
|66||Kanwar Taal or Kabar Taal Lake||Begusarai, Bihar|
|67||Sultanpur National Park||Gurugram, Haryana|
|68||Bhindawas Wildlife Sanctuary||Jhajjar, Haryana|
|69||Nalsarovar Bird Sanctuary||Ahmedabad, Gujarat|
|70||Thol Lake||Mehsana, Gujarat|
|71||Wadhvana Wetland||Vadodara, Gujarat|
|72||Khijadia Bird Sanctuary||Jamnagar, Gujarat|
|73||Ranganathituu Bird Sanctuary||Karnataka|
|75||Loktak Lake||Moirang, Manipur|
75 Ramsar sites in India map
Important Question answer about the Wetlands under Ramsar Convention
◉ Which is the largest wetland under the Ramsar convention in India?
☛ Sundarbans, West Bengal (423,000 hectares)
◉ Which is the smallest wetland under the Ramsar convention in India?
☛ Renuka Wetland, Himachal Pradesh (20 hectares)
◉ Which is the first wetland under the Ramsar convention in India?
☛ Chilka Lake (1981) and Keoladeo National Park (Rajasthan)
◉ First wetland under the Ramsar convention of Uttarakhand?
☛ Assan Barrage
◉ How many Ramsar sites in India in 2023?
◉ 8th wetland of Uttar Pradesh under Ramsar convention?
☛ Sur Sarovar
◉ Which Indian state has the most number of Ramsar sites?
☛ Tami Nadu (14)
◉ 42nd Ramsar site of India?
☛ Tso Kar (Ladakh)
◉ In which plateau is Tso Kar wetland located?
☛ Rupshu Plateau
◉ In which plateau Tso Moriri wetland located?
☛ Changthang Plateau
◉ What is the name of the 46th Ramsar Wetland Site in India
☛ Wadhvana Wetland, Gujarat
◉ What is the name of the 47th Ramsar Wetland Site in India
☛ Haiderpur Wetland, Uttar Pradesh
◉ What is the name of the 49th Ramsar wetlands in India?
☛ Khijadiya Bird Sanctuary (Gujarat)
◉ What is the name of the 75th Ramsar wetland of India?
☛ Shallbugh Wetland Conservation Reserve (Jammu and Kashmir)
Frequently Asked Questions on Ramsar Sites in India
Answer: 75 (As of August 2023)
• On 13 August 2022, India added 11 more Ramsar sites to its existing list.
Answer: Tamil Nadu (14 Ramsar wetlands)
Answer: Renuka Wetland.
• Renuka Wetland (0.2 sq. km) of Himachal Pradesh is the smallest Ramsar Site in India.
Answer: Sundarban Wetland (West Bengal)
Answer: Jharkhand, Nagaland, Telangana, Chattisgarh, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya. Sikkim.
Important Source of this Article
• World Wildlife