100+ Scientific Names of Animals And Plants: Important For Competitive Exam

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The topic of Scientific Names of Animals and Plants is an integral part of static GK. Often, the scientific names of various animals and plants are asked in competitive exams. In this blog post, I have included the most important scientific names based on questions asked in previous years’ competitive exams across India.

Introduction to Binomial Nomenclature

Binomial Nomenclature is the universally accepted method for formally naming species. This system employs two-part names, often derived from Latin, though they may also originate from other languages. These two-part names are known as binomial names or scientific names.

The first part, the generic name, signifies the genus to which the species belongs, providing a broader classification. The second component, the specific name, precisely pinpoints the species within the genus.

Adherence to specific conventions is essential in binomial nomenclature. For instance, the generic name must always begin with a capital letter, while the specific name starts with a lowercase letter. Additionally, the full binomial name should be italicized. An illustrative example can help clarify this naming system.

Modern Humans
Generic NameHomo
Specific Namesapiens

It’s important to note that the application of binomial nomenclature is governed by internationally agreed codes of rules, such as the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) for animals and the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICNafp or ICN). These guidelines ensure consistency and clarity in the naming of organisms across the scientific community.

Scientific Names of Animals

The scientific names of animals are a crucial aspect of biological study and are particularly important for candidates preparing for competitive examinations like NDA, CDS, CISF, CRPF, AFCAT, and Agniveer for entry into the Indian Armed Forces. The binomial nomenclature system ensures each species is uniquely identified, which is vital for clear communication in the scientific community and beyond.

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List of Scientific Names of Animals

Listed below are the scientific names of a few common animals.

Common Animals Names with Their Scientific Names
Arabian camelCamelus dromedarius
African elephantLoxodonta
AlpacaVicugna pacos
Asian ElephantElephas maximus
Brown Tree SnakeBoiga irregularis
GaurBos gaurus
GoatCapra aegagrus hircus
Polar bearUrsus maritimus
Sun bearHelarctos malayanus
BlackbuckAntilope cervicapra
Black ratRattus rattus
BuffaloBubalus bubalis
CatFelis catus
CheetahAcinonyx jubatus
ChinkaraGazella bennettii
Common MynaAcridotheres tristis
CowBos taurus
CrocodileCrocodylus palustris
DogCanis lupus familiaris
Red foxVulpes vulpes
Gavial or GharialGavialis gangeticus
GiraffeGiraffa camelopardalis
Great horned owlBubo virginianus
HenGallus gallus domesticus
HippopotamusHippopotamus amphibius
HorseEquus caballus
House crowCorvus splendens
HouseflyMusca domestica
House mouseMus musculus
House sparrowPasser domesticus
House wall LizardHemidactylus flaviviridis
Indian CobraNaja naja
Indian PythonPython molurus
Kashmir stag or hangulCervus canadensis hanglu
King cobraOphiophagus hannah
KoelEudynamys scolopaceus
Leopard or pantherPanthera pardus
MonkeySimiiformes (infraorder)
LionPanthera leo
NilgaiBoselaphus tragocamelus
PeacockPavo cristatus
RabbitOryctolagus cuniculus
Rat snakePtyas mucosa
Rattle snakeCrotalinae
Rhesus monkeyMacaca mulatta
RhinocerosRhinoceros unicornis
Sea snakeHydrophiinae
SheepOvis aries
Siberian craneGrus leucogeranus
SparrowPasser domesticus
TigerPanthera tigris
Tiger SnakeNotechis scutatus
Wild AssEquus africanus asinus
Wild boarSus scrofa
WolfCanis lupus
ZebraEquus quagga
Honey BeeApis
PigeonColumba livia

Scientific Names of Plants List

Listed below are the scientific names of a few common plants.

Common Plant Names with Their Scientific Names
AppleMalus domestica
BambooBamboosa aridinarifolia
BananaMusa paradisiaca
BanyanFicus benghalensis
Black GramPlasoes mungo
Black PepperPiper nigrum
BrinjalSolanum melongena
CapsicumCapsicum frutescens
CarrotDaucas carota
CloveSyzygium aromaticum
CorianderCoriandrum sativum
CottonGossypium herbaceum
CucumberCucumis sativus
Curry plantMurraya koenigii
DrumstickMoringa oleifera
GarlicAllium sativum
GingerZingiber officinale
Green GramPhaseolies aulicus
GuavaPsidium guajava
HennaLawsonia inermis
Horse GramDolichos biffoeus
JowarSorghum vulgare
LemonCitrus limonium
LettuceLactuca sativa
MaizeZea mays
MangoMangifera indica
MintMentha arvensis
Money PlantEpipremnum aureum
NeemAzadirachta indica
OnionAllium cepa
OrangeCitrus aurantium
PineappleAnanas comosus
PotatoSolanum tuberosum
RadishRaphanus sativus
Red GramCajanus cajan
SandalwoodSantalum album
SpinachSpinacia oleracea
TobaccoNicotina tobaccum
TomatoSolanum lycopersicum
TulsiOcimum sanctum
TurmericCurcuma longa
WatermelonCitrullus vulgaris
WheatTriticum aestivum
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Scientific Names of Extinct Organisms

Listed below are some of the most renowned extinct organisms, accompanied by their scientific names.

Famous Extinct Organisms with Their Scientific Names
Passenger pigeonEctopistes migratorius
Tasmanian tigerThylacinus cynocephalus
T-RexTyrannosaurus rex
Great aukPinguinus impennis
MegalodonCarcharocles megalodon

Frequently Asked Scientific Names

Here’s a table with the scientific names for various animals and plants, which are often inquired about in competitive exams:

Sl. No.Animal/PlantScientific Name
1HumanHomo sapiens
2DogCanis lupus familiaris
3MangoMangifera indica
4LionPanthera leo
5RoseRosa spp.
6TomatoSolanum lycopersicum
7Tulsi (Holy Basil)Ocimum sanctum
8Aloe VeraAloe barbadensis miller
9Salt (Table Salt)Sodium chloride (NaCl)
10CowBos taurus
11AppleMalus domestica
12HibiscusHibiscus rosa-sinensis
13TurmericCurcuma longa
14TigerPanthera tigris
15PeacockPavo cristatus
16Mango LeafMangifera indica (leaf)
17Touch Me Not PlantMimosa pudica
18Baking SodaSodium bicarbonate (NaHCO₃)
19ElephantElephas maximus (Asian Elephant) / Loxodonta africana (African Elephant)
20CarrotDaucus carota subsp. sativus
21Blood Cancer (Leukemia)Not applicable (scientific names are not assigned to diseases)
22MushroomAgaricus bisporus (Common edible mushroom)
23MaizeZea mays
24Vitamin ARetinol
25GingerZingiber officinale
26FrogAnura (order)
27PigSus scrofa domesticus
28PomegranatePunica granatum
29FishDepends on the species; for example, Goldfish – Carassius auratus
30GarlicAllium sativum
31PineappleAnanas comosus
32Vitamin CAscorbic acid
33CockroachBlattodea (order)
34Vitamin KPhylloquinone (K1) / Menaquinones (K2)
35EarthwormLumbricina (order)
36Money PlantEpipremnum aureum
37SunflowerHelianthus annuus
38TreeNot applicable (scientific names are specific to species)
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Uses Of Scientific Names

The utilization of scientific names, or Binomial Nomenclature, is a fundamental aspect of taxonomy, where living organisms such as plants and animals are systematically named, often using Latin derivations. This method offers several key benefits:

  • Systematic Classification : It facilitates a structured organization of species, simplifying the study and comprehension of specific characteristics, which enhances the systematic understanding of biodiversity.
  • Unambiguous Identification : Each species is assigned a unique scientific name, eliminating confusion that may arise from common names and ensuring precise identification across various languages and regions.
  • Global Standardization : Scientific names are universally acknowledged and standardized, which allows for consistent communication and documentation in the scientific community.
  • Retention of Names : When new scientific insights necessitate the reclassification of a species into a different genus, the specific epithet of the scientific name is typically preserved, maintaining continuity and historical context.
  • Comparative Analysis : These names enable researchers to discern the evolutionary relationships and distinctions among species within the same genus, aiding in the construction of phylogenetic trees and evolutionary studies.

Binomial Nomenclature is not just a naming convention; it’s a critical tool for scientific discourse, conservation efforts, and the advancement of biological sciences. Its advantages underscore its role in providing stability and continuity in the ever-evolving field of taxonomy¹[1]²[2]³[3].

Frequently Asked Questions

Q1. How to write scientific names of organisms?

When writing a scientific name, the conventions of binomial nomenclature dictate that the genus name is always capitalized, while the specific epithet, or species descriptor, begins with a lowercase letter. This rule applies regardless of whether the specific epithet is derived from a proper noun. For example, the scientific name for humans is written as Homo sapiens, not Homo Sapiens.

Here’s a quick guide to the formatting rules:

  • Genus Name: Always capitalized (e.g., Homo)
  • Specific Epithet: Always lowercase (e.g., sapiens)
  • Italicization: The entire scientific name should be italicized

Q2. Who came up with the concept of having scientific names?

The concept of scientific names, also known as binomial nomenclature, was developed by the Swedish botanist and physician Carl Linnaeus in the mid-1700s. He introduced this system to provide a standardized and universal language for naming species, which greatly facilitated scientific communication. Linnaeus first implemented this system in his book “Species Plantarum,” published in. This method of naming organisms using a genus and species designation is still in use today and forms the basis for the scientific classification of all life forms.

Q3. What is trinomen? Give an example.

Trinomen is the trinomial name given to animals apart from the genus name and the species name. It is usually given to identify a subspecies. For example, the trinomen of the grey wolf subspecies, the Arctic wolf, is Canis lupus arctos.

Q4. What is the scientific name for modern humans?

The scientific name for modern humans is Homo sapiens . This name was established by Carl Linnaeus in his 1758 publication, “Systema Naturae”. The genus Homo identifies the group of species to which humans belong, and the specific epithet sapiens means “wise” or “intelligent” in Latin. Modern humans are sometimes further classified as Homo sapiens sapiens to distinguish them from our direct ancestors.

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