Elephant Reserve in India is another protected area by the Government of India. Apart from Project Elephant, India has taken various steps to conserve Asian elephants. In this article, we have discussed in detail elephant stock in India, which is important for all competitive exams.
• India has the highest concentration (more than 50%) of wild Asian elephants in the entire world.
• Currently, there are 33 elephant reserves in India. And they spread over ten elephant landscapes.
• Elephant is the state animal of Jharkhand, Kerala, and Karnataka.
• Scientific name of Asian elephants is “Elephas maximus”.
Total Elephant Reserves in India 2022, recent updates
• There are currently 33 elephant reserves in India.
• Last 5 elephant reserves are
- 29th elephant reserve – Dandeli Elephant Reserve (Karnataka)
- 30th elephant reserve – Singphan Elephant Reserve (Nagaland)
- 31st elephant reserve – Lemru Elephant Reserve (Chhattisgarh)
- 32nd elephant reserve – Agasthyamalai Elephant Reserve (Tamil Nadu)
- 33rd elephant reserve -Terai Elephant Reserve (Uttar Pradesh)
Latest elephant reserve in India
• The two most recently declared elephant reserves are the Agasthyamalai Elephant Reserve and the Terai Elephant Reserve.
• Agasthiyamalai Elephant Reserve is the 32nd addition to the Elephant Reserves of India.
• Agasthiyamalai Elephant Reserve has been notified in 2022 by the Government of Tamil Nadu.
• Recently, the Union Ministry of Forests, Environment and Climate Change (MoEFCC) approved the Terai Elephant Reserve (TER).
• After the approval of the Terai Elephant Reserves (TER) in Uttar Pradesh, India’s total number of elephant reserves is now 33.
• This has brought the total area under Elephant Reserves in India to about 79,557 sq. km across 14 states of the country.
Also, see all Protected Areas of India
32nd elephant reserve in India
• Tamil Nadu Chief Minister MK Stalin announced via Twitter that Agasthyamalai in Tirunelveli district has become Tamil Nadu’s 5th elephant reserve.
• The Agasthyamalai Elephant Reserve (area 1,197.48 sq km) is located at the southernmost tip of the Western Ghats and spans the two southern states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu.
• It is named after the Agastya Mala peak rising about 1868 meters above sea level in Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala.
• The other four elephant sanctuaries in Tamil Nadu are:
- Nilgiris-Eastern Ghat Elephant Reserve
- Coimbatore Silent Valley Elephant Reserve
- Srivilliputhur Elephant Reserve
- Anamalai or Annamalai Elephant Reserve
33rd elephant reserve in India
• The Terai Elephant Reserve (TER) is located in Uttar Pradesh.
• It is the second elephant reserve in Uttar Pradesh after the Uttar Pradesh Elephant Reserve.
• The Terai Elephant Reserve covers an area of 3,049 sq km, spanning Dudhwa Tiger Reserve (DTR) and Pilibhit Tiger Reserve (PTR).
• It is India’s 33rd Elephant Reserve.
Elephant Range Countries
• Although elephants are found all over the world, the largest numbers are found in Asia and Africa.
• Elephants are found in a total of 13 countries in Asia, these countries are called Elephant Range Countries.
• Out of 13 countries, 5 countries are in South Asia, namely India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, and Sri Lanka.
• Of the remaining 8 countries, 7 countries are located in Southeast Asia and the other in North Asia. Countries located in South East Asia are Vietnam, Laos, Malaysia, Indonesia, Cambodia, Myanmar, and Thailand and the North Asian country is China.
Major Initiatives to protect elephants in India
National Heritage Animal
• The Government of India declared the Indian elephant as a National Heritage Animal in 2010.
Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.
• The Indian elephant is also given the highest degree of legal protection by being listed in Schedule I of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species
• Indian elephant also included in Appendix I of CITIES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, also known as the Washing Convention)
Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS COP 13)
• In February 2020, the Thirteenth Meeting of the Convention on Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS COP 13) was held at Gandhinagar, Gujarat.
• At this COP 13 meeting of the CMS, three animals, namely the Great Indian Bustard, an Asian Elephant, and a Bengal Florican were added to Appendix I.
Monitoring the Illegal Killing of Elephants
• The CITIES Monitoring the Illegal Killing of Elephants (MIKE) program is a site-based system designed to monitor the illegal killing of elephants and provide information to help states make appropriate management and enforcement decisions.
• MIKE was started in South Asia in 2003
. When an elephant carcass is found, local site staff try to establish and record the cause of death and other details.
• These data are recorded in a standardized form, the details of which are then collated and submitted to the MIKE program for analysis.
Elephant care initiative by the Government of India
• India’s first elephant rehabilitation center is to be set up in Kottur, Kerala.
• Gaj Yatra is a nationwide awareness campaign to celebrate elephants and highlight the need to protect elephant corridors.
• India’s first specialized hospital for elephants opens in Mathura. The hospital has modern medical facilities to treat elephants in distress like wireless digital x-ray, laser treatment, dental x-ray, thermal imaging, ultrasonography, hydrotherapy, tranquilization equipment, and quarantine facilities.
• Plan B, a unique strategy adopted by the North East Frontier Railway (NFR) to keep wild elephants off the tracks.
• Plan B is a unique strategy that involves placing devices near the track, which emit the ‘buzzing’ sound of swarming bees, which is considered a natural deterrent to elephants (elephants have a natural fear of dangerous stings of the insects).
• The first Plan B device was installed near Guwahati railway station.
• Recently, Plan B launched by Northeast Frontier Railway (NFR) won the Indian Railways Best Innovation Award.
List of Elephant Reserves in India 2022
• Here is the list of 32 elephant reserves in India with state and zone.
|Sl. No||Elephant Reserves||State||Zone|
|1||Shivalik Elephant Reserve||Uttarakhand||North-Western Landscape|
|2||Uttar Pradesh Elephant Reserve||Uttarpradesh||North-Western Landscape|
|3||Mayurjharna Elephant Reserve||West Bengal||East-Central Landscape|
|4||Singhbhum Elephant Reserve||Jharkhand||East-Central Landscape|
|5||Mayurbhanj Elephant Reserve||Orissa||East-Central Landscape|
|6||Mahanadi Elephant Reserve||Orissa||East-Central Landscape|
|7||Sambalpur Elephant Reserve||Orissa||East-Central Landscape|
|8||Lemru Elephant Reserve||Chhattisgarh||East-Central Landscape|
|9||Badalkhol – Tamor Pingla Elephant Reserve||Chhattisgarh||East-Central Landscape|
|10||Kameng Elephant Reserve||Arunachal Pradesh||Kameng- Sonitpur Landscape|
|11||Sonitpur Elephant Reserve||Assam||Kameng- Sonitpur Landscape|
|12||Dihing-Patkai Elephant Reserve||Assam||Eastern-South Bank Landscape|
|13||South Arunachal Elephant Reserve||Arunachal Pradesh||Eastern-South Bank Landscape|
|14||Kaziranga-Karbi Anglong-Intanki Landscape||Assam||Kaziranga-Karbi Anglong Elephant Reserve|
|15||Dhansiri-Lungding Elephant Reserve||Assam||Kaziranga-Karbi Anglong-Intanki Landscape|
|16||Intanki Elephant Reserve||Nagaland||Kaziranga-Karbi Anglong-Intanki Landscape|
|17||Chirang-Ripu Elephant Reserve||Assam||North Bengal- Greater Manas Landscape|
|18||Eastern Dooars Elephant Reserve||West Bengal||North Bengal- Greater Manas Landscape|
|19||Garo Hills Elephant Reserve||Meghalaya||Meghalaya Landscape|
|20||Mysore Elephant Reserve||Karnataka||Brahmagiri- Nilgiri-Eastern Ghats Landscape|
|21||Wayanad Elephant Reserve||Kerala||Brahmagiri- Nilgiri-Eastern Ghats Landscape|
|22||Nilambur Elephant Reserve||Kerala||Brahmagiri- Nilgiri-Eastern Ghats Landscape|
|23||Coimbatore Elephant Reserve||Tamil Nadu||Brahmagiri- Nilgiri-Eastern Ghats Landscape|
|24||Nilgiri Elephant Reserve||Tamil Nadu||Brahmagiri- Nilgiri-Eastern Ghats Landscape|
|25||Rayala Elephant Reserve||Andhra Pradesh||Brahmagiri- Nilgiri-Eastern Ghats Landscape|
|26||Annamalai Elephant Reserve||Tamil Nadu||Annamalai- Nelliyampathy- High Range Landscape|
|27||Anamudi Elephant Reserve||Kerala||Annamalai- Nelliyampathy- High Range Landscape|
|28||Periyar Elephant Reserve||Kerala||Periyar- Agasthyamalai Landscape|
|29||Srivilliputhur Elephant Reserve||Tamil Nadu||Periyar- Agasthyamalai Landscape|
|30||Dandeli Elephant Reserve||Karnataka||Periyar- Agasthyamalai Landscape|
|31||Singphan Elephant Reserve||Nagaland||Periyar- Agasthyamalai Landscape Kaziranga-Karbi Anglong-Intanki Landscape|
|32||Agasthiyamalai Elephant Reserve||Tamil Nadu||Periyar- Agasthyamalai Landscape|
|33||Terai Elephant Reserve||Uttar Pradesh||North-Western Landscape|
Total Elephant Reserves in India Map
Proposed Elephant Reserve
|Sl. No||Elephant Reserves||State||Zone|
|1||Baitami Elephant Reserve||Orissa||East-Central Landscape|
|2||South Orissa Elephant Reserve||Orissa||East-Central Landscape|
|3||Khasi-hills Elephant Reserve||Meghalaya||Meghalaya Landscape|
Elephant population in India 2022 state wise
|Sl No||State||Number of Elephants|
• Project elephant was launched by the Government of India in the year 1992 as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme with the following objectives:
- To protect elephants, their habitat & corridors.
- To address issues of man-animal conflict.
- The welfare of captive elephants
World Elephant Day
• World Elephant Day is observed on August 12 to spread global awareness for the conservation and protection of elephants from various threats.
• It was launched on August 12, 2012, to draw attention to the urgent plight of Asian and African elephants.
Elephant Census 2017
• An elephant census is conducted every 5 years. The last elephant census was conducted in 2017, the next elephant census will be conducted in 2022.
• According to the 2017 Elephant Census Report, Karnataka has the highest number of elephants (6049), followed by Assam (5719) and Kerala (3054).
Elephant population in India 2022
♦ Total elephants in India: According to the 2017 census, the elephant population in the country is estimated at 29964.
• There are 14,612 elephants in the southern region and 10,139 in the northeast.
• The total number is lower than the 2012 census. Because the number of elephants in the 2012 census was 30,711.
Census of captive elephants
• The Ministry of Environment, Forests, and Climate Change released the results of the first survey of elephants in captivity in 2019.
• 58 percent of all captive elephants are concentrated in two states, Assam (905) and Kerala (518).
Current affairs related to elephants in news
• Sri Lanka recently mourned the death of a 69-year-old elephant named ‘Raja’, who was declared its ‘national treasure’.
• Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change ministry has set up a permanent coordination committee to prevent the deaths of elephants on railway tracks.
• Save the Elephant Day is celebrated on 16th April every year to raise awareness about the dangers elephants face.
• At the 16th Steering Committee meeting the Ministry of Environment, Forest, and Climate Change launched a field manual relating to the Human-Elephant conflict.
• Recently, a state forest department has set up an elephant rescue center at the Balmiki Tiger Reserve in Bihar.
• Odisha plans to install automatic sirens near national highways to protect elephants from accidents.
Indian elephant facts
• India is home to the largest population of Asian elephants (50-60%).
• Project Elephant in India started in 1992.
• Mysore Elephant Reserve in Karnataka is the largest elephant reserve in India.
• Singhbhum Elephant Reserve is India’s first elephant reserve, created in 2001 under Project Elephant, covering an area of 13,440 sq km.
• Currently, there are 33 elephant reserves in India.
• Agasthiyamalai Elephant Reserve in Tamil Nadu is the 32nd Elephant Reserves in India.
• Terai Elephant Reserve is the latest (33rd) elephant reserve in India.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) on elephant Reserves in India
Answer: 33 (As of October 2022)
◘ Latest 2 Elephant Reserves in India
• 32nd elephant reserve – Agasthiyamalai Elephant Reserve (Tamil Nadu)
• 33rd elephant reserve -Terai Elephant Reserve (Uttar Pradesh)
Answer: Both Tamil Nadu and Assam have 5 elephant reserves.
Earlier there were 4 elephant reserves in Tamil Nadu, but recently one more new elephant reserve named Agasthyamalai was announced.
Answer: Karnataka ((6049)
Answer: Terai Elephant Reserve (Uttar Pradesh)
Answer: Singphan Elephant Reserve (Nagaland)
Anaswer: Elephas maximus indicus
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