In today’s article, I have provided some details about the Upcoming Cyclone in India in very simple language which is very important for various competitive exams.
▪ After reading this article you will know the following details___
- Who names tropical cyclones?
- How are cyclones named?
- Why is naming cyclones important?
- Upcoming Cyclone in India 2023
- The function of the Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre
The following types of questions are asked on this topic in competitive exams.
1. Recent cyclones in the news.
2. Areas affected by the cyclone
3. Which country named the cyclone?
Now, Read the following article to learn all about cyclones in India.
Who Names Tropical Cyclones?
- The tropical cyclones forming over different Ocean basins are named by the concerned Regional Specialised Meteorological Centres (RSMCs) & Tropical Cyclone Warning Centres (TCWCs).
- At present Worldwide, there are six RSMCs including the India Meteorological Department RSMC, and six TCWCs mandated for issuing advisories and naming tropical cyclones.
- The Indian Meteorological Department located in New Delhi is responsible for mandating the name of a tropical cyclone and storm developing over the North Indian Ocean region including the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea.
- In the twenty-seventh Session of The WMO/ESCAP Panel on Tropical Cyclones (PTC) held in 2000 in Muscat, the Sultanate of Oman agreed to assign names to the tropical cyclones in the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea.
- The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) jointly established the Panel on Tropical Cyclones (PTC)in 1972 as an intergovernmental body.
- The naming of Tropical Cyclones over the North Indian Ocean Region started in the year 2004.
- The name of each tropical cyclone proposed by the 13 member countries of the WMO/ESCAP Panel alphabetically.
|Here is the alphabetical list of all the 13 member countries of the WMO/ESCAP panel.|
| Bangladesh,  India,  Iran,  Maldives,  Myanmar,  Oman,  Pakistan,  Qatar,  Saudi Arabia,  Sri Lanka,  Thailand, United Arab Emirates and  Yemen.|
Six Regional Specialised Meteorological Centres (RSMCs)
|Ocean Region||RSMCs Name|
|South-West Pacific Ocean||RSMC Nadi-Tropical Cyclone Centre, Fiji Meteorological Service|
|South-West Indian Ocean||RSMC La Reunion-Tropical Cyclone Centre/Meteo-France|
|The Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea||Tropical Cyclones New Delhi/India Meteorological Department|
|Western North Pacific Ocean and the South China Sea||Tokyo-Typhoon Center/Japan Meteorological Agency|
|Central North Pacific Ocean||Honolulu Hurricane Center|
|The Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, North Atlantic, and eastern North Pacific Oceans||Miami-Hurricane Center/National Hurricane Center|
Source – RSMC.IMO
List of 6 Tropical Cyclone Warning Centres (TCWCs)
|Indonesia||Jakarta/Meteorological and Geophysical Agency/BMG, Indonesia|
|Tasman Sea||Wellington/Meteorological Service of New Zealand, New Zealand|
|The Solomon Sea and Gulf of Papua||Port Moresby/National Weather Service, Papua New Guinea|
|Coral Sea||Brisbane/Bureau of Meteorology, Australia|
|The Arafura Sea and the Gulf of Carpenteria||Darwin/Bureau of Meteorology, Australia|
|South-East Indian Ocean||Perth/Bureau of Meteorology, Australia|
Source – TCW.WMO
How are Cyclones Named?
While sending the naming suggestions of each cyclone, those countries have to follow some rules such as:
- The proposed name should be neutral to Politics and political figures, Religious beliefs, Cultures, and Gender.
- The Name should be chosen in such a way that it does not hurt the sentiments of any group of the population over the world.
- It should not be very rude and cruel in nature.
- It should be short, easy to pronounce, and should not offensive to any member.
- The maximum length of the name will be eight letters.
- The proposed name should be provided along with its pronunciation and voice-over.
- The Panel reserves the right to reject any name, if any, of the criteria above is not satisfied.
- The finalized names may also be reviewed during the course of time of implementation with the approval of PTC in its annual session, in case any reasonable objection is raised by any member.
- The names of tropical cyclones over the north Indian Ocean will not be repeated. Once used, it will cease to be used again. Thus, the name should be new. It should not be there in the already existing list of any of the RSMCs worldwide including RSMC, New Delhi.
Why is Naming Cyclones Important?
- Tropical cyclones are named to identify each individual cyclone.
- Names are easier to remember than numbers and technical terms.
- Also, the names make it easier for the media to report on tropical cyclones.
- It also helps create awareness of its development and remove confusion in case of simultaneous occurrence of cyclones over a region.
- Naming cyclones also help remember a cyclone easily, rapidly, and effectively disseminate warnings to a much wider audience.
Upcoming Cyclone in India 2023
|Sl.No||Cyclone Name||Name given by the Country|
Recent Cyclone Events
✅ Cyclone Michaung
- A low-pressure area over the Southeast Bay of Bengal and adjoining South Andaman Sea has developed into a well-marked low-pressure area, as per the India Meteorological Department (IMD).
- The system is expected to move in a west-northwest direction, potentially intensifying into a Depression over the southeast Bay of Bengal by November 30 and evolving into Cyclone ‘Michaung’ within the next 48 hours.
- The system is expected to move in a west-northwest direction, potentially intensifying into a Depression over the southeast Bay of Bengal by November 30 and evolving into Cyclone ‘Michaung’ within the next 48 hours.
Wind and Rainfall Forecasts
- Strong winds (25-35 kmph, gusting to 45 kmph) are anticipated over the South Andaman Sea and adjoining Andaman & Nicobar Islands on November 29.
- Light to moderate rainfall is expected in Nicobar Islands and Andaman Islands between November 29 and December 1, with isolated instances of heavy to very heavy rainfall.
- Squally weather with increasing wind speeds forecasted in the southeast Bay of Bengal from November 30 onwards.
- Gale wind speeds of 60-70 kmph, gusting to 80 kmph, expected in specific regions on December 2.
Advisory for Fishermen
- Fishermen advised to avoid venturing into designated areas of the South Andaman Sea, southeast Bay of Bengal, southwest Bay of Bengal, and central Bay of Bengal on specific dates.
State Government Alert
- The Odisha government has put seven coastal districts on alert due to the potential intensification of the low-pressure area into a cyclonic storm.
Rainfall Forecasts in Different Regions
- Scattered to fairly widespread light to moderate rainfall predicted in various regions, along with thunderstorm activity, over specified dates.
- Heavy rainfall expected in certain areas of Tamil Nadu, Puducherry, Karaikal, and Kerala & Mahe during specific periods.
✅ Cyclone Hamoon
✅ Cyclone Hamoon: Latest Updates and Precautions
A Powerful Cyclone Strikes Bangladesh
In recent news, Cyclone Hamoon has made landfall along the coastal region of Bangladesh, bringing with it strong winds and heavy rainfall.
Who named Cyclone Hamoon?
Cyclone Hamoon received its name from Iran. It is worth noting that the term ‘Hamoon’ originates from Persian and signifies inland desert lakes or marshlands. These natural features often serve as seasonal reservoirs in regions bordering the Helmand basin.
Cyclone Hamoon’s Landfall and Weakening
According to the India Meteorological Department (IMD), Cyclonic Storm Hamoon commenced its landfall process around midnight.
Currently, it is centered approximately 40 kilometers east-southeast of Chittagong, Bangladesh.
The cyclone is expected to move northeastwards and weaken into a deep depression within the next six hours, further downgrading into a depression during the subsequent six hours.
The IMD reported wind speeds of 80 to 90 km/h, gusting up to 100 km/h.
“The Cyclonic Storm Hamoon over coastal Bangladesh lay centered at 0530 hours IST of 25th Oct about 40 km east-southeast of Chittagong (Bangladesh),” the IMD stated.
Precautionary Measures and Evacuations
Anticipating the impact of Cyclone Hamoon, coastal districts in Bangladesh have implemented evacuation plans to ensure the safety of residents.
Authorities have moved several residents to secure shelters by Tuesday night.
Cargo handling at Chattogram Port has been suspended, and river transport in southern Bangladesh has been halted as precautionary measures.
Impact on the Northeastern States
The northeastern states have witnessed significant weather changes in the past two days as Cyclone Hamoon makes its way.
The IMD has predicted isolated heavy rainfall over Mizoram, with heavy to very heavy rainfall forecasted over Tripura for Wednesday.
The intensity of rainfall is anticipated to decrease by October 26, with light to moderate rainfall expected in a few places across the region.
Cautionary Advisory for Fishermen
The IMD has issued a cautionary advisory to fishermen, advising them against venturing into the northern part of the Bay of Bengal and along the coasts of Odisha, West Bengal, Bangladesh, and northern Myanmar on Tuesday and Wednesday.
Summary of Cyclone Hamoon
Cyclone Name Hamoon Formed over Bay of Bengal Landfall Coastal Bangladesh Wind Speed as Per IMD 80 to 90 km/h, gusting up to 100 km/h Name Given By Iran Expected Weakening Into a deep depression within the next 12 hours Precautions Evacuations in coastal districts, suspension of cargo handling, and halted river transport Impact on the Northeastern States Isolated heavy rainfall in Mizoram and Tripura Fishermen Advisory Avoid venturing into the northern Bay of Bengal and affected coasts
✅ Cyclone Tej
A Rare Occurrence
Twin cyclones, a meteorological rarity, have captured our attention as Cyclone Tej and Cyclone Hamoon make headlines.
Cyclone Tej Weakens into Cyclonic Storm
Cyclone Tej over the Arabian Sea reached coastal Yemen and weakened into a Cyclonic Storm (CS). It was marked by wind speeds of 125-135 kmph gusting to 150 kmph.
Impact on Odisha and West Bengal
The presence of both Cyclone Tej and Cyclone Hamoon has triggered heavy rainfall in parts of Odisha and West Bengal.
The Indian Meteorological Department had earlier predicted storm activities in a few Indian states this week, and these predictions have been ringing true.
Cyclone Tej’s Transformative Journey
Cyclone Tej has followed an intriguing path. Originating as a Very Severe Cyclonic Storm (VSCS) over the Arabian Sea, it is now poised to cross between Al Ghaidah (Yemen) and Salalah (Oman) in the early hours of October 25. It is expected to further intensify into a deep depression in the next 24 hours.
Predicted Weather for the Northeastern States
According to the weather department, moderate rainfall with isolated heavy rains is expected in the northeastern states of Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura, south Assam, and Meghalaya until October 26. The Odisha government has advised district collectors to remain prepared for any eventuality and evacuate people from low-lying areas in case of heavy rain.
Summary of Cyclone Tej
Cyclone Name Tej Originated in Arabian Sea Headed Toward Yemen-Oman Coast Landfall on Socotra and Yemen First Landfall Since Cyclone Luban in 2018 Name Given By India Wind Speeds 125-135 kmph gusting to 150 kmph Crossing Points Al Ghaidah (Yemen) and Salalah (Oman) Impact Heavy rainfall across the eastern half of the country and western parts of Oman Precautions Evacuation plans and storm warnings in place IMD Predictions Storm activities anticipated in several Indian states
✅ Cyclone Biparjoy
The Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) has issued a warning regarding the potential formation of a low-pressure area in the Arabian Sea by June 7. If the low-pressure area develops into a cyclonic storm, it will be named Cyclone Biparjoy.
The IMD’s weather forecast predicts the formation of a cyclonic circulation over the southeast Arabian Sea around June 5 to June 7.
The Cyclone Name “Biparjoy” (বিপর্যয়- In Bengali) given by Bangladesh.
This circulation may lead to the formation of a low-pressure area, which could intensify into a cyclone within the next 48 hours.
The development of this low-pressure area is expected to bring heavy rainfall and flash floods to Maharashtra, including Mumbai and the Konkan region.
Tentative dates for Cyclone Biparjoy indicate that heavy rains may occur over Maharashtra, including Pune. Mumbai is also expected to experience intense rainfall from June 8 to June 10 once the low-pressure area develops into a cyclonic circulation.
Weather experts have further predicted heavy rainfall for Mumbai and the Konkan region from June 11 to June 12. The cyclonic circulation may also lead to flash floods in the Konkan region. However, it is important to note that the IMD has not confirmed any development at this time.
✅ Cyclone Mocha
The Bay of Bengal witnessed the formation of its first cyclone of 2023 last month, named ‘Mocha’.
A cyclone named ‘Mocha’ formed over the Bay of Bengal in the second week of May, as predicted by weather forecast models and meteorologists.
Yemen was responsible for naming the cyclone ‘Mocha’, drawing inspiration from the port city of Mocha on Yemen’s Red Sea coast.
Cyclone Mocha made landfall on Myanmar’s west coast with winds equivalent to a Category 5 Atlantic hurricane.
The storm moved north-northeasterly across Rakhine State in Myanmar and southeastern Bangladesh’s Cox’s Bazar, where the world’s largest refugee camp is located.
Disaster response teams and thousands of local volunteers were put on standby in the camps, and a national cyclone early warning system was in place.
Mocha used to be the primary port for Yemen’s capital, Sanaa, until it was overshadowed by Aden and al Hudaydah in the 19th century.
Mocha was renowned for its coffee trade and gave its name to Mocha coffee. It was the primary marketplace for coffee (Coffea arabica) from the 15th century until the early 18th century.
Despite the discovery of other sources of coffee, Mocha beans (also known as Sanani or Mocha Sanani beans, indicating that they are from Sana’a) remained valued for their unique flavor and continue to be so today.
Why is the name of the new cyclone Mocha?
Mocha often brings to mind a delicious, steaming hot cup of coffee, but the true meaning behind the name is quite different. In reality, Mocha is the name of a port city located in Yemen, which serves as the main port for the capital city. This region is renowned for its coffee cultivation, and the coffee produced there is also known as Mocha. Coffee enthusiasts highly prefer Mocha coffee. As a result, the storm name Mocha was suggested in honor of this region in Yemen.
New list of tropical cyclone names adopted by the WMO/ESCAP Panel
- Here are the 169 (13 countries * 13 columns) new names of tropical cyclones suggested by the 13 member countries of the WMO/ESCAP Panel.
- These names applied to the cyclones over the North Indian Ocean, including the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea.
|Name Given By||Column 1||Column 2||Column 3||Column 4|
|United Arab Emirates||Mandous||Senyar||Afoor||Nahhaam|
|Name Given By||Column 5||Column 6||Column 7||Column 8|
|United Arab Emirates||Quffal||Daaman||Deem||Gargoor|
|Name Given By||Column 9||Column 10||Column 11||Column 12||Column 13|
|United Arab Emirates||Khubb||Degl||Athmad||Boom||Saffar|
Criteria for the implementation of the list of 169 names given in the above table
- The name of a Tropical Cyclone from the South China Sea, which crosses Thailand and emerges into the Bay of Bengal as a tropical cyclone will not be changed.
- Panel Members’ names will be listed alphabetically country-wise.
- The names will be used sequentially, column-wise. (Column 1, Column 2 . . . . . Column 13)
- The first name will start from the first row of column 1 and will continue sequentially to the last row in column 13.
- Panel Member’s names are listed alphabetically country-wise.
- The table will be used only once
The main activities or functions of the RSMC, New Delhi
- Round-the-clock watches over the entire North Indian Ocean.
- Analysis and processing of global meteorological data for diagnostic and prediction purposes.
- Detection, tracking, and prediction of cyclonic storms in the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea.
- Running of numerical models for tropical cyclone track and intensity prediction.
- Issue of Tropical Weather Outlook once daily (at 0600 UTC) and an additional outlook at 1700 UTC in the event of a depression that is likely to intensify into a cyclonic storm.
- Issue cyclone advisories to the Panel countries 8 times a day.
- Issue of storm surge advisories.
- Implementation of the Regional Cyclone Operational Plan of WMO/ESCAP Panel.
- Collection, processing, and archival of all data pertaining to cyclonic storms viz. wind, storm surge, pressure, rainfall, satellite information, etc.
- Exchange of composite data and bulletins pertaining to cyclonic storms with Panel countries.
- Preparation of comprehensive reports on each cyclonic storm.
- Continued research on storm surge, track, and intensity prediction techniques.
Source – rsmcnewdelhi official website
Why generally cyclones do not form during the active monsoon season?
Cyclones generally do not form during the active monsoon season due to several atmospheric and oceanic conditions that are not conducive to their development. These factors include:
- High Vertical Wind Shear: During the monsoon season, strong vertical wind shear, which is the change in wind speed and direction with altitude, disrupts the vertical structure of cyclones and prevents them from intensifying. The strong vertical wind shear tears apart the developing cyclone, making it difficult for it to maintain its organized structure and intensify into a stronger storm.
- Weak Coriolis Force: The Coriolis force, which is responsible for the rotation of cyclones, is weaker during the monsoon season due to the reduced temperature difference between the equator and the poles. This weaker Coriolis force makes it more difficult for cyclones to form and maintain their rotation.
- Lack of Sea Surface Temperature Gradient: Cyclones require a warm sea surface temperature to form and intensify. However, during the monsoon season, the sea surface temperature is relatively uniform, with no significant temperature gradient. This lack of a temperature gradient reduces the energy available for cyclone formation.
- Presence of Monsoon Trough: The monsoon trough, a low-pressure area that extends across the Indian subcontinent during the monsoon season, creates unfavorable conditions for cyclone formation. The strong winds associated with the monsoon trough disrupt the circulation patterns needed for cyclone development.
In summary, the combination of high vertical wind shear, weak Coriolis force, lack of sea surface temperature gradient, and the presence of the monsoon trough makes it difficult for cyclones to form and intensify during the active monsoon season.
Climate Change’s Impact on Cyclones: What’s Changing and Why
Unraveling the Cyclone Mystery
Cyclones, those swirling tempests of wind and rain, are being influenced by a powerful force: climate change. As we delve into the trends and consequences, we discover how warmer ocean waters, rising sea levels, and shifts in atmospheric patterns are reshaping the cyclone landscape.
The Warming Oceans
Tropical Cyclones Find Fuel: Warmer ocean temperatures are like a chef adding more ingredients to a recipe. They provide extra energy for tropical cyclones, allowing them to not only form but also grow stronger. The result? More frequent and more intense storms.
Category 4 and 5 Cyclones on the Rise: Recent decades have seen a surge in tropical cyclones reaching category 4 and 5 intensity levels. These are the heavyweights of cyclones, packing devastating punches.
The Changing Patterns
The Dance of Frequencies: It’s not a uniform dance across the globe. Some regions witness a reduction in the frequency of tropical cyclones, while others experience an increase.
Atlantic versus Pacific: For instance, the number of Atlantic hurricanes may decline, yet on the other side of the world, the Pacific is likely to see more storms on the horizon.
Rising Sea Levels and Extended Reach
Higher Tides, Deeper Impact: As our planet’s sea levels rise, so does the reach of tropical cyclones. Storm surges can now penetrate further inland, causing widespread destruction and putting coastal communities in harm’s way.
The Arabian Sea Awakening
An Unexpected Transformation: The Arabian Sea, nestled between the Indian subcontinent, the Arabian Peninsula, and the Somali Peninsula, wasn’t known for its cyclone activity. That’s changing, though.
A Surprising Surge: Over the past four decades, the number of cyclones in the Arabian Sea has shot up by about 50%. This unexpected shift is driven by rising sea surface temperatures, a telltale sign of climate change.
Conclusion: Cyclones in a Changing Climate
As climate change continues its relentless march, we see the fingerprints of this transformation on cyclones. They intensify, alter their paths, and even surprise us by appearing in unexpected places. Understanding these shifts is crucial to better prepare and protect vulnerable communities as we navigate the stormy waters of a changing climate.
Mastering Cyclone Management and Safety
Cyclones are nature’s fury, and facing them requires a well-thought-out strategy. In this journey, we explore comprehensive plans to manage and mitigate cyclone impacts.
Building a Resilient Future: The path to safety begins with investing in cyclone-resistant infrastructure. It’s cost-effective and provides a long-term solution.
River Connections for Dry Lands: Enhancing river connectivity is like creating a natural drainage system. It prevents waterlogging and eases the cyclone’s grip.
Early Warnings and Timely Action
Sound the Alarm: Early warning systems are the first line of defense. We need efficient ones that cover all areas and provide ample time for preparation and evacuation.
Safe Havens in the Storm
Shelters from the Cyclone: When the cyclone strikes, safe evacuation shelters become lifesavers. Let’s ensure these sturdy refuges are there when people need them the most.
Ready for the Worst
Disaster-Ready: Disaster management is our safety net. It must be efficient and prompt in delivering relief to those affected.
Nature’s Bodyguard – Mangroves
Green Shields: Mangroves in coastal regions act as guardians against storm surges. Regenerating them is a natural way to minimize cyclone impacts.
United We Stand
Teamwork for Safety: When the cyclone hits, coordination between the central government and state authorities is vital. It ensures effective disaster mitigation.
Building Skills for Safety
Knowledge is Power: Training and capacity building are our tools for success. Government officials, first responders, and the public must work together efficiently during cyclones.
Conclusion: Riding the Cyclone Waves
In our journey to master cyclone management, we have discovered essential strategies. By focusing on resilience, early warnings, safe shelters, and united efforts, we can navigate cyclones with confidence and minimize their impact.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
Answer: Tej and Hamoon
Answer: The India Meteorological Department (IMD)
Answer: Arabian Sea
Answer: Mrutyunjay Mohapatra
Answer: In Arabic, Mandous means “Raft”