Use of some common medicinal drugs

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•The principles of chemistry have been used for the benefit of mankind.
• If we look closer at our daily life there are numerous things that works on the principle of chemistry.♦ Some of the common materials are…
• Drugs for making medicine
• Cleanliness materials like – Soaps, detergents
• Household Bleaches
• Tooth pastes
• Synthetic fibres
• Food preservatives
Different classes of Drugs
➲ Antacids
➲ Tranquilizers
➲ Barbiturates
➲ Analgesics
➲ Antipyretics
➲ Antibiotics
➲ Antiseptics
➲ Disinfectants
➲ Anti fertility Drugs❖Antacids
• Over production of acid in the stomach causes irritation and pain.
• In severe cases, ulcers are developed in the stomach.
• Antacids remove the excess acid in the stomach and raise the pH at appropriate level.
• Some commonly used antacids are …. ~ Sodium hydrogencarbonate
~ Aluminium and magnesium hydroxide.
•But Excessive use of these antacids trigger the production of even more acid.
• Two resolve the problem ,at present days two drugs named Cimetidine (Tegamet) and ranitidine (Zantac) are used

Tranquilizers
• Tranquilizers used for the treatment of stress, and mild or even severe mental diseases.
• These induced a sense of well-being by reducing anxiety, stress and irritability.
• They form an essential component of sleeping pills.
Example :-Barbiturates , Valium , serotonin ,Chlordiazepoxide, Meprobamate, Equanil


Note :-
• Barbiturates are the Derivatives of barbituric acid.
• Some common Barbiturates are — veronal, amytal, nembutal, luminal.
• Barbiturates are hypnotic, sleep producing agents.


Analgesics
• Abolished or reduce pain without causing disturbances of nervous system.
• These are two types of Analgesics
~ Non-narcotic (non-addictive) analgesics
~ Narcotic drugs

Non-narcotic
• Aspirin and paracetamol belong to the class of non-narcotic analgesics.
• Aspirin inhibits the synthesis of prostaglandins which stimulate inflammation in the tissue and cause pain.
• These drugs are useful in alleviating skeletal pain such as that due to arthritis.

Narcotic drugs
• Some common narcotic drugs ….
~ Opium
~ Heroin
~ Codeine
~ Tramadol
~ Morphine

• Morphine narcotics are referred to as opiates, as because these are obtained from the opium poppy seeds.
• These analgesics are used for relief of pain.
• Mainly used for the relief of cardiac pain , pain duet to terminal cancer and postoperative pain.

Antifertility Drugs
• Antifertility drugs are of use as a Birth control pills.
• It essentially contain a mixture of synthetic estrogen and progesterone derivatives.
• Both of these compounds are hormones.
Example :- Norethindrone (synthetic progesterone derivative) , Ethynylestradiol ( synthetic estrogen derivative )

Different classes of Drugs ( Brief overview)
Name Use and function Example
Antacids Remove excess acid in the stomach and raise the pH at appropriate level. . Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate
Mmilk of magnesia or Magnesium Hydroxide
Cimetidine (Tegamet)
ranitidine (Zantac)
Tranquilizers Used for the treatment of stress and mild or severe mental disease. Barbiturates , Valium , serotonin ,Chlordiazepoxide, Meprobamate, Equanil
Analgesics Abolished or reduce pain without causing disturbances of nervous system Opium, Heroin , Codeine, Tramadol, Morphine
Antipyretics Brings down body temperature at the time of high fever are called antipyretics Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), choline salicylate (Arthropan), magnesium salicylate (Arthriten), ibuprofen (Advil)
Antifertility Drugs Antifertility drugs are of use as a Birth control pills Norethindrone (synthetic progesterone derivative) , Ethynylestradiol ( synthetic estrogen derivative )

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