Various cross pollination methods

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Methods of Cross Pollination
What is Pollination
• Pollination is the method of transfer of pollen grains from anther to the stigma of the same flower or of different flower of the same species.

♦ There are two types of pollination ..
• Self Pollination
• Cross Pollination

Self Pollination
• It is the transfer of pollen grains from the anthers of a flower to the stigmas of the same flower or to another flower in the same plant.

Cross Pollination
• It is the method of transfer of pollen grains from the anthers of a flower to the stigmas of another flower in other plants of the same species.

Pollination in flowring plants may be Biotic or Abiotic…

Biotic Factors
• These are living things within an ecosystem.
• Such as plants, animals, and bacteria.

Abiotic Factors
• These are non-living components.
• Such as water, soil and atmosphere.

◘ Biotic pollination relies on living pollinators to move the pollen from one flower to another.
◘ Abiotic pollination relies on wind, water or even rain.
◘ About 80% of angiosperms rely on biotic pollination.

♦ Abiotic Methods of Pollination
• Abiotic pollination uses nonliving methods such as wind and water to move pollen from one flower to another.

• This allows the plant to spend energy directly on pollen rather than on attracting pollinators with flowers and nectar.

♦ Pollination by wind
• Pollination by wind is known as – Anemophily.
• This probably arose from insect pollination.

♦ Pollination by water• Pollination by water, is called – Hydrophily.
• It uses water to transport pollen, sometimes as whole anthers.
• Pollen or whole anthers can travel across the surface of the water to carry dry pollen from one flower to another.

♦ Pollination by rain
• Rain pollination is used by a small percentage of plants.
• Heavy rain discourages insect pollination.
• Heavy rain also damages unprotected flowers.
• but can itself disperse pollen of suitably adapted plants,
~ such as Ranunculus , flammula, Narthecium ossifragum.

Different Methods of Cross) pollination (biotic and abiotic)
1• ✡ Pollination by Wind ✔ Anemophily
2• ✡ Pollination by Water ✔ Hydrophily
3• ✡ Pollination by Insects ✔ Entomophily
4• ✡ Pollination by Bat ✔ Chiropterophily
5• ✡ Pollination by Birds ✔ Ornithophily
6• ✡ Pollination by Rain ✔ Ombrophily
7• ✡ Pollination occurs through snails ✔ Malacophily
8• ✡ Pollination by elephant is called ✔ Elephophily

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