Here is a list of artificial sweeteners and their trade names. This topic belongs to the chapter “chemistry in everyday life” which itself is a part of General Science for competitive exams. At the end of this article, we provide some previous year MCQs, which were asked in the SSC exam.
What are artificial sweeteners?
▪ Artificial sweeteners are a type of low-calorie or calorie-free alternative to sugar. They are widely used in food and beverage products to provide sweetness without the added calories and health risks associated with excessive sugar intake.
▪ The list of artificial sweeteners includes popular names such as Aspartame, Saccharin, Sucralose, Acesulfame potassium, and Stevia, which are often sold under different brand names.
▪ Artificial sweeteners are chemical compounds used as synthetic sugar substitutes. These are many times sweeter than ordinary sugar. Artificial sweeteners are used as an alternative to table sugar. It has zero calories or almost no calories.
Common artificial sweeteners include:
• Acesulfame K
Don't assume that zero-calorie artificial sweeteners mean they're healthy. Some studies in laboratory animals have found links between artificial sweeteners and cancer. And while there is no evidence that artificial sweeteners cause cancer, they are best avoided or consumed in moderation.
Artificial Sweetening Agents
What are Artificial Sweetening Agents?
▪ Artificial sweetening agents are synthetic compounds that are used as sugar substitutes. They are often used to sweeten food and drinks without adding calories or affecting blood sugar levels. So, All the compounds that are used as a substitute for sugar to sweeten food are called artificial sweetening agents.
Examples of Artificial Sweetening Agents
▪ Some common examples of artificial sweetening agents include Aspartame, Saccharin, Sucralose, Acesulfame potassium, and Stevia.
▪ It is crucial to consider that although artificial sweeteners are frequently utilized as sugar alternatives, they might not be appropriate for everyone and might have adverse effects. To ensure the appropriate use of artificial sweetening agents, it’s advisable to consult with a healthcare professional.
What is the first popular artificial sweetening agent?
▪ Saccharin is the first popular, widely used artificial sweetener and has been used as a sweetening agent since its discovery in 1879. It is incredibly sweet, with a potency that is 550 times greater than cane sugar. The other most commonly used artificial sweetening agent is Aspartame, Alitame Sucralose, etc.
How Does an Artificial Sweetening Agent Work?
▪ Artificial sweeteners work by being soluble in water and binding to the sweetness receptor on the tongue’s surface.
▪ This interaction between the sweetener and receptor triggers a sequence of events that are transmitted to the brain and interpreted as a sweet taste.
The sweetness receptor on the tongue's surface is connected to a G-protein, and when an artificial sweetener binds to it, the G-protein dissociates, activating an enzyme and causing a sequence of events. This results in the transmission of signals to the brain, which are interpreted as the sweetness of the artificial sweetening agent.
▪ The surface of the tongue is covered in taste buds with several taste receptors, which detect different flavors.
▪ When food is consumed, these receptors encounter food molecules and send signals to the brain to identify the taste.
▪ Artificial sweetener molecules fit onto the sweetness receptor similarly to sugar molecules, providing a sweet taste without added calories as they are generally not broken down into calories by the body.
▪ Only a small amount of artificial sweeteners is needed to make food taste sweet, resulting in virtually no calorie consumption.
Some commonly used artificial sweeteners with Sweetness value/Index
• Aspartame ➥ 100
• Acesulfame potassium ➥ 200
• Dulcin ➥ 250
• Glucin ➥ 300
• Saccharin ➥ 550
• Sucralose ➥ 600
• Alitame ➥2000
• Neotame ➥ 10,000
Types of Artificial Sugars
▪ Here are some common types of artificial sweeteners list:
- Acesulfame potassium (Ace-K)
- Luo Han Guo (Monk Fruit) extract
▪ Siraitia grosvenorii, commonly known as Monkfruit or Luohan Guo, is a vine plant that belongs to the gourd family and is native to southern China. ▪ The fruit extract of this plant, known as mogrosides, is highly sought after for its intense sweetness, which is 250 times stronger than regular sugar (sucrose). ▪ Mogroside extract has been used as a low-calorie alternative to sugar in drinks and also has a long history of use in traditional Chinese medicine.
▪ Cyclamate is a synthetic sweetener that is much sweeter than table sugar (sucrose), with a potency of 30 to 50 times. It is the weakest of the artificial sweeteners that are commercially available.
Artificial Sweeteners List With Trade Names
• Artificial sweeteners are often sold by their brand name or trade name, so be sure to check the label.
|Artificial sweeteners name||Trade name|
• 1, 4,6′-Trichlorogalactosucrose
• Equal Sucralose
• NatraTaste Gold
|Saccharin||• Sweet’N Low|
• Sodium Saccharin
• Equal Saccharin
• Acid saccharin
• Necta Sweet
• Sweet Twin
|Aspartame-acesulfame salt||• TwinSweet|
|Cyclamate||• Calcium cyclamate|
|Erythritol||• Sugar alcohol|
|Xylitol||• Sugar alcohol|
• Smart Sweet
|Mannitol||• Sugar alcohol|
|Sorbitol||• Sugar alcohol|
• D-glucitol syrup
|Polydextrose||• Sugar alcohol|
(Derived from glucose and sorbitol)
|Lactitol||• Sugar alcohol|
|Maltitol||• Sugar alcohol|
• Maltitol Powder
• Maltitol Syrup
• Hydrogenated High Maltose Content Glucose Syrup
• Hydrogenated Maltose
• MaltiSweet (hard to find online to buy)
• Sugar alcohol
• Hydrogenated Isomaltulose
• ClearCut Isomalt
• DiabetiSweet (also contains Acesulfame-K)
|Hydrogenated Starch Hydrolysate (HSH)||• Sugar Alcohol|
• Equal Classic
• NatraTaste Blue
|Acesulfame potassium||• Nutrinova|
• ACK (Acesulfame Potassium)
• Sweet One
• Ace K
• Equal Spoonful
Artificial Sweeteners list Brand Names
▪ Here’s a list of common artificial sweeteners, their brand names, and their acceptable daily intake (ADI) limits:
▪ Aspartame – brand names include SugarTwin, Equal and NutraSweet. ADI: 50 milligrams per kilogram of body weight.
▪ Saccharin – brand names include Sweet’N Low. ADI: 15 milligrams per kilogram of body weight.
▪ Sucralose – brand name is Splenda. ADI: 5 milligrams per kilogram of body weight.
▪ Acesulfame potassium – brand names include Sunett and Sweet One. ADI: 15 milligrams per kilogram of body weight.
▪ Stevia – brand names include Truvia, Rebaudioside A, and Pure Via. ADI: 4 milligrams per kilogram of body weight.
▪ The Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is the amount of an artificial sweetener that a person can consume daily over a lifetime without any significant health risk. ADI values are set by regulatory agencies and are based on extensive safety testing.
▪ It’s important to note that these ADI limits are based on extensive safety testing and are intended to provide a general guide for the safe consumption of artificial sweeteners. However, it’s always best to consult with a healthcare professional to determine the appropriate intake for your individual needs.
|Artificial Sweetener||Brand Names||Sweetness as compared with sugar||Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) (mg/kg bw/d)|
|Aspartame||Equal®, NutraSweet®, Sugar Twin®||200 times sweeter than sugar||50|
|Acesulfame Potassium (Ace-K)||Sunett®, Sweet One®||200 times sweeter than sugar||15|
|Saccharin||Sweet’N Low®, Sweet Twin®, Necta Sweet®||200-700 times sweeter than sugar||15|
|Sucralose||Splenda®||600 times sweeter than sugar||5|
|Neotame||Newtame®||7,000-13,000 times sweeter than sugar||0.3|
|Advantame||No brand names||20,000 times sweeter than sugar||32.8|
|Siraitia grosvenorii Swingle (Luo Han Guo) fruit extracts (SGFE)||Nectresse®|
Monk Fruit in the Raw®
|100 – 250 times sweeter than sugar||Not Specified|
|Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni)||Truvia® |
|200 – 400 times sweeter than sugar||4|
Most Common Artificial Sweeteners
▪ Discovered in 1879, Saccharin is the oldest and, most commonly used non-nutritive sweetener. Despite being nearly 300 times less sweet than saccharin, sucrose has a bitter aftertaste. It cannot be used in baked goods as it becomes unstable with heat, but it is suitable for sweetening drinks, candies, and toothpaste.
▪ Aspartame, discovered in 1965, is a widely used artificial sweetener that is 200 times sweeter than sugar. It is a methyl ester dipeptide called aspartyl phenylalanine-1-methyl ester.
▪ Aspartame is commonly used as a tabletop sweetener and is also found in a variety of foods. However, its sweetness decreases when heated and it breaks down into amino acids, making it unsuitable for baked goods. As a result, it is only used in cold drinks and foods as it becomes unstable when exposed to high cooking temperatures.
Acesulfame Potassium (Ace-K)
▪ Acesulfame potassium, also known as acesulfame K, is a widely used artificial sweetener that is 200 times sweeter than regular sugar. It is suitable for cooking and baking and is marketed under the brand names Sunset or Sweet One.
▪ This sweetener is 20,000 times sweeter than table sugar and suited for cooking, and baking. Advantame is utilized as a tabletop sweetener and in various products such as bubblegums, flavored beverages, dairy items, jams, confectioneries, and others.
Advantages of Artificial Sweeteners
▪ Sugar is a widely used sweetener, but it also contributes significantly to tooth decay and cavities. By reducing sugar intake and replacing it with artificial sweeteners, it is possible to minimize the adverse effects on teeth.
▪ Weight loss or maintenance is a common motivation for using artificial sweeteners. According to Mayo Clinic, one gram of sugar contains four calories. Replacing regular sugar with calorie-free sweeteners can therefore decrease daily calorie consumption.
▪ For individuals with diabetes, excessive sugar intake is a significant concern. Artificial sweeteners provide a safe alternative as they do not increase blood sugar levels. However, it is always advisable to consult a doctor before making any changes to your diet.
Artificial Sweeteners Side effects
▪ Health organizations have cleared that artificial sweeteners do not pose significant health risks. There is no evidence linking these sugar substitutes to an increased risk of cancer in humans, despite earlier studies in the 1970s that suggested a connection between the artificial sweetener saccharin and bladder cancer in rats.
▪ However, some recent studies on long-term daily consumption of artificial sweeteners have suggested a correlation with a higher risk of stroke, heart disease, and overall mortality, but these findings may be influenced by other factors such as lifestyle habits.
▪ Current research is also investigating the impact of artificial sweeteners on the gut, including how they affect cravings, hunger, and blood sugar management. Sugar alcohols, stevia, and luo han guo can cause digestive issues such as bloating, gas, and diarrhea, with the sensitivity to these effects varying from person to person.
▪ It is recommended to consume artificial sweeteners in moderation and for short periods, rather than frequently. To maintain optimal health, it is advisable to limit their use and consider reducing intake if consumed multiple times daily.
Important points for Competitive Exams
▪ Acesulfame Potassium is suitable for use in cooking and baking and is available under the brand names Sunset or Sweet One.
▪ Acesulfame Potassium is another common artificial sweetener which is also known as acesulfame K.
▪ Aspartame is 200 times sweeter than sucrose.
▪ Aspartame is composed of aspartic acid, phenylalanine, and methanol.
▪ Aspartame is sold in the brand names of NutraSweet, Equal, or Sugar Twin
▪ Alitame is about 2000 times sweeter than sucrose or table sugar.
▪ Sucralose is 600 times sweeter than ordinary sugar or table sugar
▪ Sucralose is a trichloro derivative of sucrose. (produced by chlorination of sucrose)
▪ The chemical name of Saccharin is Ortho-sulphobenzimide.
▪ Saccharin is about 550 times as sweet as cane sugar.
▪ Advantame is an incredibly potent sweetener, being 20,000 times sweeter than table sugar, and is ideal for use in cooking and baking.
Previous year’s MCQ questions from this topic
Q1. Which one of the following is not an artificial sweetener? [(SSC (10+2) Stenographer Grade ‘C’ & ‘D’ Exam. 2016)]
Q2. Saccharin is made up of …. [SSC Section Officer (Audit) Exam. 2005]
Q3. Which one of the following is not a plant product? [SSC CPO Sub-Inspector Exam. 2007]
Q4. Sweetex used by diabetic patients has an energy content of : [SSC Combined Graduate Level Prelim Exam. 2002]
A. Five calories
B. Ten calories
C. Hundred calories
D. Zero calories
Answer: Zero calories
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
Answer: Aspartame, Sucralose, Acesulfame K,
Answer: Artificial sweeteners are a type of chemical compound. Due to their low calories, they are used as a substitute for synthetic sugar.
Answer: Many people use artificial sweeteners to improve health, but studies have shown that consuming them can actually be harmful. So the best practice is to limit the intake of artificial sweeteners like sugar if possible.
Also see Acid present in food items
Primary Source of this article – NCERT