Metals and their Ores with Formula: Complete List

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Discover a comprehensive list of all important metals and their ores. Learn about the properties of metals, later we also discussed the uses and extraction methods of each metal. In this resource, we have compiled a list of important metals and their corresponding ores, along with their chemical formulas.

This information can be a valuable tool for students who are preparing for competitive exams, as well as for researchers and anyone with an interest in the field of metals and their applications.


Metals are a group of chemical elements that possess distinct characteristics, including high electrical and thermal conductivity, the ability to be shaped and formed easily, and the ability to be stretched into wires.

They are known for their malleability and ductility, which makes them useful in a wide range of applications.

Metals and their Ores
Metals and their Ores (Credit: thehappyscientist)

Metals are known for their ability to lose electrons easily and form positive ions, or cations, which are held together by metallic bonds.

Metals are typically shiny and silvery in color and are often found in nature in the form of ores.

Ores are naturally occurring mineral deposits that contain valuable metals that can be mined and extracted.

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The Physical Properties of Metals

One of the most significant properties of metals is their capability to conduct electricity and heat. This is due to the presence of delocalized electrons in metallic bonds, which allow an easy flow of electrons through the lattice structure of the metal.

Delocalized electrons are electrons that are not associated with a single atom or covalent bond in a molecule, ion, or solid metal. 

Metals are also malleable, which means they can easily be shaped into different forms like thin sheets.

Metals can be melted and converted into a liquid state, known as fusibility, which makes them useful in various industrial processes and applications.

Metals are known for their shiny appearance and their ability to be shaped and formed easily.

They also possess the property of ductility, which allows them to be stretched into thin wires.

Metals possess a high density, which means they have a high mass per unit volume.

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Important Ores list of metals and their ores

Sl.NoName of ElementsOresChemical Formula
1Aluminium (Al) ▪ Bauxite
▪ Corundum
▪ Cryolite
▪ Feldspar
▪ Alunite
▪ Kaolin or Kaolinite
2 Iron (Fe)▪ Hematite
▪ Magnetite
▪ Iron Pyrite
▪ Siderite
▪ Limonite
3 Copper (Cu) ▪ Copper Pyrite or Chalco pyrite
▪ Copper Glance
▪ Cuprite
▪ Malachite
Cu2O CuCO3.Cu(OH)2
4 Zinc (Zn) ▪ Zinc Blend or Sphalerite
▪ Smithsonite or Calamine
▪ Zincite
5 Sodium (Na) ▪ Rock Salt
▪ Sodium Carbonate
6 Potassium (K)▪ Carnalite
▪ Saltpetre
7 Lead (Pb) ▪ Galena
▪ Anglesite
8 Tin (Sn) ▪ Tin Pyrites
▪ Cassiterite
9 Silver (Ag) ▪ Silver Glance or Argentite
▪ Chlorargyrite
Ag2S AgCl
10 Gold (Au) ▪ Calaverite or Gold Telluride
▪ Sylvanite
11 Mercury (Hg) ▪ Cinnabar
▪ Calomel
12Magnesium (Mg) ▪ Dolomite
▪ Carnallite
▪ Magnesite
13 Calcium (Ca) ▪ Limestone
▪ Dolomite
▪ Gypsum
▪ Anhydrite
CaMg(CO3)2 CaSO4.2H2O CaSO4
14 Phosphorous (P) ▪ Phosphorite
▪ Fluorapatite
15 Manganese (Mn)▪ Pyrolusite
▪ Mangnite
▪ Braunite
3Mn2O3, MnSiO3

Difference between Ores and Minerals

DefinitionNaturally occurring inorganic solids with a crystalline structure and a definite chemical formula.Rocks or mineral deposits containing a high enough concentration of a specific metal to be economically extracted.
CompositionDefinite chemical composition.May contain impurities and earthly substances (gangue) along with the desired metal compound.
ExamplesGranite, basalt, quartz, feldspar, etc.Bauxite (aluminum ore), haematite (iron ore), copper pyrites, zinc blend, etc.
RelationshipAll ores are minerals, but not all minerals are ores.Ores are a subset of minerals.
Economic ValueGenerally not used for metal extraction.Used specifically for extracting metals.

Remember that minerals form the building blocks of rocks, while ores are valuable sources of metals! If you have any more questions, feel free to ask.

FAQs about Metals and their Ores

Q1. Hematite and Magnetite are the ores of which element?

Hematite (Fe2O3) and magnetite (Fe3O4) are both iron ores. They are essential sources of iron, a crucial element for steel production and various industrial applications.

Q2. What are the 3 ores of Aluminum?

Bauxite is the primary ore for aluminum. It contains a high concentration of aluminum hydroxides (Al2O3·3H2O). The three main types of bauxite are:

Gibbsite: The most common form of bauxite.
Boehmite: Contains less water than gibbsite.
Diaspore: Found in some bauxite deposits.

Q3. What are the 4 types of ores?

Ores can be classified based on their composition and economic value. Here are four types:

Metallic Ores: Contain valuable metals (e.g., iron, copper, gold).
Non-metallic ores: Valuable for non-metallic elements (e.g., sulfur, phosphate).
Precious Ores: Yield precious metals (e.g., gold, silver, platinum).
Base Metal Ores: Provide base metals (e.g., copper, lead, zinc).

Q4. Is diamond an ore?

No, diamond is not an ore. It is a precious gemstone composed of carbon atoms arranged in a crystal lattice. Diamonds are valuable for jewelry and industrial cutting tools but are not used to extract metals.

Q5. What are the 4 methods of producing metals from ores?

Four common methods:

Smelting: Heating the ore to extract metals (e.g., iron smelting).
• Electrolysis: Using an electric current to separate metals (e.g., aluminum extraction).
Leaching: Dissolving metals from ores using chemicals (e.g., cyanide leaching for gold).
• Reduction: Removing oxygen from metal compounds (e.g., reduction of iron oxide to iron).

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