Explore the Complete List of Agricultural Revolutions in India 1960-2024. India’s agricultural sector has witnessed remarkable transformations over the past six decades. This journey has been marked by 16 significant revolutions, each bringing about innovative practices and propelling the country towards greater food security and agricultural prosperity. Let’s take a closer look at these revolutions.
Can You Answer👇
✅ In 2024, which Agricultural Revolution’s Father received the Bharat Ratna Award?
A. Yellow Revolution
B. Green Revolution
C. Brown Revolution
D. Pink Revolution
Challenge yourself! Engage in extra MCQ practice—accessible at the conclusion of this topic.
Agriculture Revolutions in India
Throughout India’s history, significant shifts in farming practices have occurred, resembling pivotal moments termed agricultural revolutions. These revolutions illustrate the adaptability of Indian farmers and their ability to generate innovative ideas.
These periods of transformation blend traditional and modern farming methods, creating a mosaic depicting how our nation is nourished. Explore these distinct agricultural revolutions in India that act as a unique thread, contributing to the narrative of our evolving farming practices.
Significance and Importance
An agricultural revolution signifies a profound transformation in farming within a short span. The introduction of new tools, concepts, or cultivation methods not only enhances farming efficiency but also ensures an ample food supply for a growing population. It marks a significant shift that simplifies farming practices and aids the nation in producing more food.
Major Agricultural Revolutions in India from 1960-2024
Presented below is an exhaustive compilation of Agricultural Revolutions in India, encompassing various dimensions and facets.
|Father of the Revolution
|Key Focus / Objective
|Challenges that Remain
|Food Grains Production
|Boosted food grain yields
|Sustainable water and land use
|Higher milk production
|Ensuring fair returns for dairy farmers
|Dr Arun Krishnan
|Increased fish production
|Overfishing and coastal habitat degradation
|Oilseed Production, Mustard & Sunflower
|Boosted oilseed production
|Enhancing productivity sustainably
|Egg Production, Poultry Production
|Expansion of egg and poultry industries
|Disease management and animal welfare
|Increased fertilizer usage
|Balancing chemical use and soil health
|Onion, Pharmaceuticals, Prawn Production
|Improved production in respective areas
|Quality control and market fluctuations
|Leather, Cocoa, Non-Conventional Products
|Diversified agricultural products
|Ensuring sustainability and ethical practices
|Growth in potato cultivation
|Storage and distribution challenges
|Fruits, Honey, Horticulture Development
|Growth in horticultural products
|Post-harvest losses and supply chain issues
|Coined by Narendra Modi and Arun Jaitley
|Higher Production through Technology
|Increased food production
|Ensuring equitable access to technology
|Silver Fiber Revolution
|Enhanced cotton yield and quality
|Pest resistance and sustainability
|Meat Production, Tomato Production
|Increased meat and tomato production
|Quality assurance and resource use
|Petroleum Product Production
|Reduced dependency on imports
|Managing environmental impacts
|Integration of ecological principles
|Improved sustainability of agriculture
|Spreading awareness and adoption
|Golden Fiber Revolution
|Enhanced jute production
|Market competition and synthetic materials
Agriculture Revolution in India: Key Points
- The Green Revolution or Third Agricultural Revolution
- Initiated in developed countries in the early 20th century, spread globally till the late 1980s
- Adoption of high-yielding varieties of cereals (dwarf wheat and rice)
- Widespread use of chemical fertilizers
- Pesticides and controlled irrigation
- Role of Norman Borlaug, “Father of the Green Revolution,” and his Nobel Peace Prize
- Yuan Longping‘s contributions to hybrid rice varieties.
- M. S. Swaminathan, the main architect or the Father of the Green Revolution in India.
- Focuses on improving the production of potatoes in India.
- Recognizes potatoes as a staple food consumed by all strata of society.
- Adopted by the Indian government to enhance the growth and production of potatoes.
- Aims to ensure the widespread availability of potatoes, catering to the dietary needs of all.
Reasons Behind Round Revolution:
- Addresses the growing demand for potatoes in India.
- Aims to diversify and improve potato varieties.
- Uttar Pradesh is the number one contributor to potato production, followed by West Bengal and Bihar.
- Potatoes are rich in starch and Vitamin B1.
- Considered a cash crop due to high marketable value per unit area.
- Introduction to India dates back to the 16th century by Portugal.
- Related to increased fertilizer production.
- Emerged post-1960s as a response to setbacks of the Green Revolution.
- Aims to improve upon the Green Revolution and address its shortcomings.
Sustainable Agriculture Solutions
- Agritech startup Grey Revolution focuses on developing sustainable food system solutions.
- Creates a platform for smallholder farmers to enhance yield and profitability.
- India, as part of the Grey Revolution, emphasizes the use of fertilizers to stimulate growth.
- Shifts focus from seed productivity to sustainable agricultural practices.
- Focus: Meeting the demand for high-quality, sustainable coffee from developed nations.
- Location: Primarily focused on the tribal areas of Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India.
- Products: Primarily focused on coffee, but also includes leather and cocoa production.
- Environmentally friendly: Promotes organic farming practices, soil conservation, and forest protection.
- Socially responsible: Ensures fair trade for farmers, improves livelihoods and promotes tribal empowerment.
- Economic development: Aims to increase coffee production and exports, contributing to the regional economy.
- Initiator: Hiralal Chaudhari, known as the “Father of the Brown Revolution”.
- Denotes a revolution in technologies used in poultry and meat processing.
- Durgesh Patel is recognized as the Father of the Pink Revolution.
Scope of Pink Revolution
- Encompasses the poultry and meat sector, onion production, and pharmaceuticals.
- Focuses on leveraging India’s rich poultry and cattle population.
- Launched on January 13, 1970, by India’s National Dairy Development Board (NDDB).
- World’s largest dairy development program.
- Transformed India into the world’s largest milk producer.
- Surpassed the United States in 1998 with about 22.29 percent of global output in 2018.
- Dr. Verghese Kurien, Chairman and Founder of Amul, was named Chairman of NDDB by Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri.
- Dr. Kurien was recognized as the father of the White Revolution.
- Skim milk powder allowed Amul to compete successfully with cow milk-based suppliers like Nestle.
- Government initiative for aquaculture industry growth.
- Originated in China, accounting for two-thirds of global aquaculture production.
Blue Revolution in India
- Launched during the 7th Five Year Plan (1985-1990).
- Fish Farmers Development Agency (FFDA) is sponsored by the Central Government.
- Intensive Marine Fisheries Program launched during the 8th Five Year Plan.
- Fishing harbors were established in Vishakhapatnam, Kochi, Tuticorin, Porbandar, and Port Blair.
- Initiated in 1986-1987 in India.
- Aimed at boosting edible oil production, particularly mustard and sesame seeds.
- Goal: Achieve self-sufficiency in oilseed production.
- Sam Pitroda is acknowledged as the key figure behind the Yellow Revolution.
- Spearheaded advanced technologies and expansion of agricultural land.
- Targeted oilseeds included linseed, castor, safflower, soybean, sunflower, mustard, groundnuts, and sesame seeds.
- Protein revolution compared to a technology-driven second Green revolution.
- Establishment of a Price Stabilization Fund with a corpus of Rs. 500 crores.
- A fund designed to assist farmers in managing market fluctuations.
- Introduction of Kisan TV to provide real-time information on innovative techniques.
- Kisan TV also focuses on water conservation and organic farming practices.
- Government initiative to increase petroleum production.
- The plan involves accelerating ethanol production by mixing with petrol to create biodiesel.
- Ethanol is a renewable energy source obtained from molasses, a by-product of sugar production.
- The long-standing practice of blending ethanol with petrol in the USA and Brazil for over 70 years.
- Blending ethanol with transport fuels offers better returns to farmers.
- Helps supplement scarce hydrocarbon resources.
- Environmentally friendly approach by reducing pollutants during combustion.
Golden Fiber Revolution
- Golden Fiber Revolution is associated with jute production in India.
- It gained prominence during the Industrial Revolution when jute became a significant raw material in the fabric industry.
- Processed jute continues to be utilized for creating robust threads and various jute products.
- The term highlights the pivotal role of jute in India’s industrial and economic landscape.
- Jute, often referred to as the “Golden Fiber,” contributes to the production of a wide range of products, including bags, textiles, and other eco-friendly items.
Sample MCQs on Agricultural Revolutions
Q1. During which period is the first Green Revolution in India often recognized?
A. 1975 -1978
Answer –D. 1966-1969
Q2. The Green Revolution in India witnessed the introduction of high-yielding varieties (HYV) of seeds primarily for the cultivation of which crop?
Answer –B. Wheat
Q3. The term Round Revolution is linked to the increased production of which agricultural product?
Answer –C. Potatoes
Q4. The Silver Fibre revolution is associated with the enhancement of production in which sector?
A. Milk Production
B. Meat Production
C. Cotton Production
D. Fruits Production
Answer –C. Cotton Production
Q5. Who is known as the Mother of Silver Revolution in India?
A. Durgesh Patel
B. Verghese Kurien
C. Harilal Chaudhary
D. Indira Gandhi
Answer –D. Indira Gandhi
Q6. In India, which state was selected as the initial site for the Green Revolution?
A. Tamil Nadu
D. Andhra Pradesh
Answer –B. Punjab
Q7. The Pink Revolution encompasses the production of which essential commodity?
Answer –D. Onions
Q8. Who holds the title of the Father of the White Revolution?
A. Norman Borlaug
B. Nirpakh Tutej
C. Dr. Verghese Kurien
D. M.S. Swaminathan
Answer –C. Dr. Verghese Kurien
Q9. The Black Revolution is primarily associated with the significant increase in the production of which resource?
A. Crude oil production
B. Grapes production
C. Oilseeds production
D. Coal production
Answer –A. Crude oil production
Q10. Who is acknowledged as the pivotal figure and often referred to as the Father of the Pink Revolution?
A. Verghese Kurien
B. Durgesh Patel
C. Harilal Chaudhary
D. Indira Gandhi
Answer –B. Durgesh Patel
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