Parts of the Alimentary Canal, Diagram, Anatomy and Key Info

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The human body’s digestive system encompasses both the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), also known as the alimentary canal, and accessory organs like the tongue, liver, pancreas, and others.

The alimentary canal is the essential pathway responsible for processing the food we eat! This muscular tube, extending from the mouth to the anus, plays a crucial role in our digestive system.

Let’s learn about the key components of the alimentary canal, explore a simple diagram, and uncover some essential anatomical details that make this system tick.

What is the Alimentary Canal?

  • Definition: The alimentary canal is the pathway through which food enters, undergoes digestion, and is eventually eliminated from the body.
  • Tube-like Structure: It is a tubular organ system consisting of a series of hollow organs, forming a long tube.
  • Mouth: The canal begins at the mouth where ingestion occurs. Chewing and initial digestion of food start here.
  • Organs Involved: The major organs along the alimentary canal include the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine.
  • Digestion: Digestion of food primarily takes place in the stomach and small intestine, where enzymes break down complex molecules into simpler forms for absorption.
  • Absorption: The small intestine is crucial for nutrient absorption, where nutrients from digested food are absorbed into the bloodstream.
  • Peristalsis: The alimentary canal exhibits peristalsis, a rhythmic contraction and relaxation of muscles that helps propel food along the digestive tract.
  • Role in Nutrient Processing: The canal plays a vital role in processing nutrients and extracting energy from the ingested food.
  • Elimination: The process culminates in the large intestine, where water is absorbed, and the remaining undigested material is formed into feces, which are eventually expelled through the anus.
  • Accessory Organs: Alongside the alimentary canal, there are accessory organs like the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas that contribute digestive enzymes and substances.
  • Overall Function: The primary function of the alimentary canal is to break down complex food into simpler forms, absorb nutrients, and eliminate waste, supporting the body’s energy needs and maintaining homeostasis.
Learn More about the Accessory Organs: Pancreas

Parts of the Alimentary Canal

The main organs of the alimentary canal are:

  • The Mouth and Oral cavity
  • Oesophagus
  • Stomach
  • Small intestine
  • Large intestine

The structure and functions of these organs are discussed below briefly.

  • The human digestive system consists of the alimentary canal and different digestive glands.
  • The alimentary canal is a muscular tube that stretches from the mouth to the anus.
  • This system includes the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and anus.
Parts of the Alimentary Canal
Parts of the Alimentary Canal (Photo: NCERT)

Mouth and Oral Cavity

  • The mouth is the initial part of the digestive system where food is ingested.
  • The oral cavity includes the palate, tongue, and teeth.


  • The palate is the roof of the oral cavity.


  • The tongue is a muscular and glandular structure attached to the base of the oral cavity.
  • It has tiny projections on its upper surface called lingual papillae, which are of three types: circumvallate, fungiform, and filiform.


  • Humans have two sets of teeth: milk or deciduous teeth and permanent teeth.

Different types of teeth in humans and their functions are:

  • Incisors: Used for cutting.
  • Canines: Used for tearing.
  • Premolars: Used for chopping.
  • Molars: Used for grinding and chewing.
  • The structure of a tooth consists of three parts: crown, neck, and root.
  • Crown: The exposed part of the tooth.
  • Neck: The region covered with gums.
  • Root: Embedded in the socket of the jaw bone (Thecodont).
Want to learn more about Gums? Check this article on


  • Acts as a common passage for both food and air.
  • The epiglottis prevents food from entering the windpipe.


  • Muscular tube facilitating the passage of a small food bolus from the mouth to the stomach.
  • The gastro-oesophageal sphincter controls the movement of food into the stomach.


  • Positioned in the upper left part of the abdominal cavity, the stomach is a muscular bag.
  • Divided into four parts: cardiac, fundus, body, and pyloric portion.
  • Cardiac part: Located close to the heart, it is regulated by the gastro-oesophageal sphincter.
  • Fundus: Dome-shaped and typically filled with air.
  • Body: The main and central part of the stomach.
  • Pyloric: Opens into the duodenum (first part of the small intestine) and is regulated by the pyloric sphincter.

Small Intestine

  • The longest part of the alimentary canal consists of three sections: Duodenum, Jejunum, and Ileum.
  • Duodenum: C-shaped, receives pancreatic, bile, and hepatic secretions through the hepatopancreatic duct.
  • Jejunum: Middle section of the small intestine.
  • Ileum: Highly coiled and connects to the large intestine.
Read More: More Details About Small Intestine

Large Intestine

  • Follows the small intestine and comprises three segments: Caecum, Colon, and Rectum.
  • Caecum: A small sac-like structure housing symbiotic microorganisms, with the vermiform appendix (a vestigial organ) attached.
  • Colon: Divided into ascending, transverse, sigmoid, and descending regions.
  • Rectum: Opens into the anus.

FAQs about the Alimentary Canal

Q: What are alimentary canals?

A: The alimentary canal, also known as the digestive tract, includes organs like the mouth, throat (pharynx), oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus. It’s a crucial part of the digestive system.

Q: What are the 7 alimentary canals?

A: The alimentary canal comprises seven main parts: the mouth, pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus.

Q: What is the alimentary canal, and what does it do?

A: The alimentary canal is a long, continuous muscular tube, about 8 to 10 meters in length, running through the body from the mouth to the anus. It’s open at both ends and is vital for the digestion of food. Key functions include breaking down food and facilitating digestion.

Q: Is teeth a part of the alimentary canal?

A: While not technically part of the alimentary canal, teeth play a crucial role in digestion. They help break down food, making it easier to swallow and initiating the digestive process. Incisors cut and munch, while molars grind and chew food in the back of the mouth.

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