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What is an ATP Full form in Biology?
• In Biology ATP means Adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
• It is an organic compound that provides energy to carry out many processes in living cells.
• Some of the vital processes are muscle contraction, nerve impulses, condensation, and chemical synthesis.
• ATP Found in all known forms of life, ATP is often referred to as the “molecular unit of currency” of intracellular energy transfer.
Discovery of ATP
• In 1929, German chemist Karl Lohmann discovered the ATP molecule.
• Later in 1948, Scottish biochemist Alexander Todd was the first to synthesize the ATP molecule.
Energy currency of the cell
• Adenosine 5′-triphosphate, or ATP, is also known as the “energy currency” of cells.
Why ATP is called the energy currency
• ATP is the source of energy in a cell to perform various functions such as cell division, respiration, and photosynthesis.
• Also, ATP is required for the synthesis of DNA and RNA.
• ATP is the primary molecule that stores and transfers energy for future use or can be used in response to energy needs.
• Therefore, ATP is called the ‘energy currency of cells.
Component of ATP
• It is an organic compound composed of phosphate groups, adenine, and sugar ribose.
• These molecules provide energy for various biochemical processes in the body.
• These ATP molecules are synthesized by Mitochondria, therefore it is called the powerhouse of the cell.
Structure of ATP molecule
• An ATP molecule consists of 3 phosphate groups, adenine and ribose sugar.
• These 3 phosphate groups are linked with high energy bonds.
• Adenine + Ribose Sugar = Adenosine
• Adenine + Ribose Sugar + 1 P = Adenosine Monophosphate (AMP)
• Adenine + Ribose Sugar + 2P = Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP)
• Adenine + Ribose Sugar + 3P = Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
Molecular Structure of ATP
How is Energy Produced by the ATP molecules?
• The three phosphate (triphosphate) groups present in the ATP molecule are called high energy bonds or also called high energy P-O-P bonds.
• Hydrolysis of ATP to ADP breaks the P-O-P bonds and releases a large amount of energy.
• ATP+H2O → ADP+Pi+ free energy (ATP is hydrolyzed to ADP)
Functions of ATP
• ATP is used to transport various molecules across cell membranes.
• It is also used as a switch to control chemical reactions and send messages.
• Other functions of ATP include providing the energy needed for blood circulation, muscle contraction, various body movements, and locomotion.
• A significant role of ATP in addition to energy production includes: synthesizing the many-thousand types of macromolecules necessary for cell survival.
• ATP can be produced through several cellular mechanisms; the three main pathways in eukaryotes are:
- TCA cycle
• TCA cycle or Tricarboxylic acid cycle also called the Citric acid cycle and Krebs Cycle. Each TCA cycle produces 2 ATP.
• In our body, ATP is produced by mitochondria (Power House of Cell), a cellular organelle.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
Q1. What is the full form of ATP in Biology?
Answer: Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
Q2. Where is ATP stored in the body?
Answer: Muscle cells
Q3. What produces the most ATP?
Answer: The electron transport chain generates the most ATP.
Q4. How many ATP is produced in TCA cycle?
Answer: 2 ATPs
Q5. How many ATP is produced in aerobic respiration?
Answer: 38 ATP molecules
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