Types of fruits and their edible parts

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Here is a brief description of “Types of Fruits and Their Edible Parts”. Several questions arise from this topic in various competitive exams like apple real fruit or false fruit. What are the edible parts of litchi? What is the name of the structural part of the fruit?

Introduction

• Fruits are nutritious and tasty seed-bearing edible structures found in flowering plants.

• Fruits are the means by which flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) disperse their seeds.

Structure of the Fruit

• Fruit is a mature or ripened ovary, which develops after fertilization.

• The fruit consists of a wall or pericarp and seeds.

• Seed surrounded by pericarp. The pericarp may be dry or fleshy.

• When the pericarp is thick and fleshy, it is differentiated into outer epicarp, middle mesocarp, and inner endocarp.

Seedless Fruits

• Seedlessness is an important characteristic of some fruits of commercial importance.

• Bananas and pineapples are examples of seedless fruits.

• Seedlessness is the result of parthenocarpy.

• If a fruit is formed without fertilisation of the ovary, it is called a parthenocarpic fruit.

• Nowadays induced parthenocarpy is applied for commercial production of various fruits (eg seedless watermelon).

fruits and their edible parts
Structure of the Fruit

How to remember these Endocarp, Mesocarp, and Exocarp?

This is very easy to remember. Check out the tricks below

♦ Exocarp – EX (First 2 Letters) – Exit (Outer Cover)

♦ Mesocarp – M (First letter ) – Middle (In Between Exocarp and Endocarp)

♦ Endocarp – EN (First 2 Letters) – Enter (Inner Side)

Types of Fruits

Based on the fertilization of the flowers, fruit is classified as True Fruits and False Fruits.

• True Fruits: Fruit forms in the ovary of the flower through fertilization. E.g. Strawberry.

• False Fruits: Fruits derived from floral parts other than the ovary. such as calyx, thalamus, corolla, etc. E.g. pear, apple, etc.

Further, In terms of verities and diversities, fruits are classified as Simple fruit, Aggregate fruit, and Multiple fruits.

Simple fruit: Simple fruits are either fleshy (such as gooseberry, tomato, etc.) or dry (such as coconut, walnut, etc.)

• Aggregate fruit: Fruit that develops from the merger of several ovaries that were separated in a single flower. E.g. Raspberry.

• Multiple fruit or collective fruits: It is formed from a cluster of flowers (known as inflorescence). Each flower in the inflorescence produces a fruit, but they mature into a single mass. e.g. Pineapple, Mulberry, etc.

fruits and their edible parts
Types of Fruits

Fruits and their Edible Parts

Simple Fruits

Sl.No Simple Fruits Scientific Name Type Edible Parts
1 Watermelon Luffa aegyptiaca Pepo Mesocarp and endocarp
2 Sweet orange Punica granatum Pepo Endocarpic juicy hair
3 Muskmelon Cucumis melo Pepo Mesocarp and endocarp
4 Bottle gourd Lagenaria siceraria Pepo Mesocarp and endocarp
5 Long Melon Citrus sinensis Pepo Entire fruit
6 Smooth Gourd Cucumis sativus Pepo Mesocarp and endocarp
7 Wheat Triticum aestivum Cryopis Endosperm and Embryo
8 Maize Zea mays Cryopis Endosperm and Embryo
9 Rice Oryza sativa Cryopis Endosperm and Embryo
10 Strawberry Fragaria ananassa Etaerio of achenes Fleshy Thalamus and Seeds
11 Lotus Nelumbo nucifera Etaerio of achenes Fleshy Thalamus and Seeds
12 Jack Fruit Artocarpus heterophyllus Sorosis Fleshy axis, bracts, perianth and seeds
13 Tomato Solanum lycopersicum Berry Pericarp & Placenta
14 Litchi Litchi chinensis Nut Fleshy aril
15 Banana Musa paradisiaca Berry Mesocarp & Endocarp
16 Brinjal Solanum melongena Berry Pericarp and Placenta
17 Coconut Cocos nucifera Drupe Endosperm, Testa, Cotyeldon and embryo
18 Almond Prunus dulcis Drupe Seeds
19 Cashew nut Anacardium occidentale Nut Cotyledons and fleshy pedicel
20 Water chestnut Eleocharis dulcis Nut Cotyledons and aril
21 Bean Phaseolus vulgaris Legume Seeds on ripening
22 Pea Pisum sativum Legume Seeds on ripening
23 Tamarind Tamarindus indica Lomentum Mesocarp
24 Lady’s finger Abelmoschus esculentus Capsule Pericarp and seeds (entire fruit)
25 Groundnut Arachis hypogaea Lomentum Seed
26 Mango Mangifera indica Drupe Fleshy Mesocarp
27 Walnut Juglans regia Drupe Cotyledons

Aggregate fruits

Sl.No Fruits Scientific Name Type Edible Parts
1 Strawberry Fragaria ananassa Etaerio of achenes Fleshy Thalamus and Seeds
2 Lotus Nelumbo nucifera Etaerio of achenes Thalamus and Seeds
3 Raspberry Rubus idaeus Etaerio of drupes Thalamus
4 Custard apple Anona squamosa Etaerio of berries Mesocarp

Composite fruits

Sl. No Fruits Scientific Name Type Edible Parts
1 Pine Apple Ananas sativus Sorosis Peduncle, bracts, perianth
2 Jack Fruit Artocarpus heterophyllus Sorosis Fleshy axis, bracts, perianth and seeds
3 Mulberry Morus alba Sorosis Fleshy axis and Succulent perianth
4 Fig Ficus carica Syconus Peduncle and Seeds

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

Q1. What is the edible part of Litchi called?

Answer: Fleshy aril

Q2. What is the edible part of mango?

Answer: Mesocarp

Q3. What is the edible part of Orange?

Answer: Juicy placental hairs

Q4. Examples of false fruit?

Answer: Apple

Q5. Example of parthenocarpic fruit?

Answer: Banana


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