Types of fruits and their edible parts

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Here is a brief description of “Types of Fruits and Their Edible Parts”. Several questions arise from this topic in various competitive exams like apple real fruit or false fruit. What are the edible parts of litchi? What is the name of the structural part of the fruit?

Introduction

• Fruits are nutritious and tasty seed-bearing edible structures found in flowering plants.

• Fruits are the means by which flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) disperse their seeds.

Structure of the Fruit

• Fruit is a mature or ripened ovary, which develops after fertilization.

• The fruit consists of a wall or pericarp and seeds.

• Seed surrounded by pericarp. The pericarp may be dry or fleshy.

• When the pericarp is thick and fleshy, it is differentiated into outer epicarp, middle mesocarp, and inner endocarp.

Seedless Fruits

• Seedlessness is an important characteristic of some fruits of commercial importance.

• Bananas and pineapples are examples of seedless fruits.

• Seedlessness is the result of parthenocarpy.

• If a fruit is formed without fertilisation of the ovary, it is called a parthenocarpic fruit.

• Nowadays induced parthenocarpy is applied for commercial production of various fruits (eg seedless watermelon).

fruits and their edible parts
Structure of the Fruit

How to remember these Endocarp, Mesocarp, and Exocarp?

This is very easy to remember. Check out the tricks below

♦ Exocarp – EX (First 2 Letters) – Exit (Outer Cover)

♦ Mesocarp – M (First letter ) – Middle (In Between Exocarp and Endocarp)

♦ Endocarp – EN (First 2 Letters) – Enter (Inner Side)

Types of Fruits

Based on the fertilization of the flowers, fruit is classified as True Fruits and False Fruits.

• True Fruits: Fruit forms in the ovary of the flower through fertilization. E.g. Strawberry.

• False Fruits: Fruits derived from floral parts other than the ovary. such as calyx, thalamus, corolla, etc. E.g. pear, apple, etc.

Further, In terms of verities and diversities, fruits are classified as Simple fruit, Aggregate fruit, and Multiple fruits.

Simple fruit: Simple fruits are either fleshy (such as gooseberry, tomato, etc.) or dry (such as coconut, walnut, etc.)

• Aggregate fruit: Fruit that develops from the merger of several ovaries that were separated in a single flower. E.g. Raspberry.

• Multiple fruit or collective fruits: It is formed from a cluster of flowers (known as inflorescence). Each flower in the inflorescence produces a fruit, but they mature into a single mass. e.g. Pineapple, Mulberry, etc.

fruits and their edible parts
Types of Fruits

Fruits and their Edible Parts

Simple Fruits

Sl.NoSimple FruitsScientific NameTypeEdible Parts
1WatermelonLuffa aegyptiacaPepoMesocarp and endocarp
2Sweet orangePunica granatumPepoEndocarpic juicy hair
3 MuskmelonCucumis meloPepoMesocarp and endocarp
4Bottle gourdLagenaria sicerariaPepoMesocarp and endocarp
5Long MelonCitrus sinensisPepoEntire fruit
6Smooth GourdCucumis sativusPepoMesocarp and endocarp
7WheatTriticum aestivumCryopisEndosperm and Embryo
8MaizeZea maysCryopisEndosperm and Embryo
9RiceOryza sativaCryopisEndosperm and Embryo
10StrawberryFragaria ananassaEtaerio of achenesFleshy Thalamus and Seeds
11LotusNelumbo nuciferaEtaerio of achenesFleshy Thalamus and Seeds
12Jack FruitArtocarpus heterophyllusSorosisFleshy axis, bracts, perianth and seeds
13TomatoSolanum lycopersicumBerryPericarp & Placenta
14LitchiLitchi chinensisNutFleshy aril
15BananaMusa paradisiacaBerryMesocarp & Endocarp
16BrinjalSolanum melongenaBerryPericarp and Placenta
17CoconutCocos nuciferaDrupeEndosperm, Testa, Cotyeldon and embryo
18AlmondPrunus dulcisDrupeSeeds
19Cashew nutAnacardium occidentaleNutCotyledons and fleshy pedicel
20Water chestnutEleocharis dulcisNutCotyledons and aril
21BeanPhaseolus vulgarisLegumeSeeds on ripening
22PeaPisum sativumLegumeSeeds on ripening
23TamarindTamarindus indicaLomentumMesocarp
24Lady’s fingerAbelmoschus esculentusCapsulePericarp and seeds (entire fruit)
25GroundnutArachis hypogaeaLomentumSeed
26MangoMangifera indicaDrupeFleshy Mesocarp
27WalnutJuglans regiaDrupeCotyledons

Aggregate fruits

Sl.NoFruitsScientific NameTypeEdible Parts
1StrawberryFragaria ananassaEtaerio of achenesFleshy Thalamus and Seeds
2LotusNelumbo nuciferaEtaerio of achenes Thalamus and Seeds
3RaspberryRubus idaeusEtaerio of drupesThalamus
4Custard appleAnona squamosaEtaerio of berriesMesocarp

Composite fruits

Sl. NoFruitsScientific NameTypeEdible Parts
1Pine AppleAnanas sativusSorosisPeduncle, bracts, perianth
2Jack FruitArtocarpus heterophyllusSorosisFleshy axis, bracts, perianth and seeds
3MulberryMorus albaSorosisFleshy axis and Succulent perianth
4FigFicus caricaSyconusPeduncle and Seeds

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

Q1. What is the edible part of Litchi called?

Answer: Fleshy aril

Q2. What is the edible part of mango?

Answer: Mesocarp

Q3. What is the edible part of Orange?

Answer: Juicy placental hairs

Q4. Examples of false fruit?

Answer: Apple

Q5. Example of parthenocarpic fruit?

Answer: Banana


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