Vitamins, Source, Chemical Names, and Deficiency disease

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Vitamins, their Sources, Chemical Names, and Deficiency disease is a vital topics in general science sections of almost all competitive exams. In the below chart, we have provided the Scientific Name of Vitamins along with Sources, the solubility of vitamins, and their deficiency disease.

What are Vitamins?

• A Vitamin is an organic compound that is needed in small amounts for the proper functioning of all the biological activities of a living organism.

• Adequate amounts of essential nutrients (Like vitamins) cannot be synthesized in the organism, and therefore must be obtained through food.

• Due to the small amount needed, vitamins are often considered micronutrients. They play an important role in our body functions like metabolism, immunity, and digestion.

•  The term “vitamin” was derived from “vitamine,  Here ‘vita’ means ‘life’.

• The word  ‘Vitamine’ was coined in 1912 by the Polish biochemist Casimir Funk.

• An English biochemist “Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins” in the year 1929 was awarded the Nobel Prize for the discovery of vitamins.

Classification Of Vitamins

• Based on physical and biological activity, Vitamins are classified as either water-soluble or fat-soluble.

Fat-soluble vitamins:

In humans 4 fat-soluble vitamins are:

1.  Vitamin A
2. Vitamin D
3. Vitamin E
4. Vitamin K

Water-soluble vitamins

In humans 10 Water-soluble vitamins are:

1. Vitamin B7 (Biotin)
2. Vitamin B3 (Niacin)
3. Vitamin Pyridine.
4. Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)
5. Vitamin C
6. Vitamin B9 (Folic acid)
7. Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
8. Vitamin B12 (Cyacobalamin)
9. Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid)
10. Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)

◘ How to Remember water-soluble vitamins?
• Just remember that all vitamins except vitamin BC are fat soluble. (A, D, E, K)
• Where C = Vitamin C and
• B = All B group vitamins (Vitamin B1, B3, B5……)

Chemical or Scientific Name of Vitamins and their Sources

The table below gives complete information about the different types of vitamins, the source of the vitamins, and the scientific names of the vitamins.

Common Name Solubility Chemical Name Food Sources Deficiency disease
Vitamin A Fat-soluble Retinol Carrot, Broccoli,Milk, Spinach,
tomatoes, Egg yolk, Fish, Butter
Night blindness, hyperkeratosis, and keratomalacia
Vitamin C Water-soluble Ascorbic acid Green Chilli, Lettuce, Beans,
Fresh citrus fruits
such as orange
and Amla
Scurvy, Bleeding Gums
Vitamin D Fat-soluble Calciferol Cod liver oil, Fish, beef, egg yolk, liver, chicken breast and cereals. Rickets and osteomalacia
Vitamin E Fat-soluble Tocopherol Vegetable oils like
Cotton seed oil,
Sunflower oil, Lettuce, Egg, Milk
Sterility in males and abortions in females, mild hemolytic anemia in newborn infants
Vitamin K Fat-soluble Phylloquinone Pork liver oil, Leafy vegetables,
Cabbage, Broccoli, Beef and lamb.
Bleeding diathesis
Vitamin B1 Water-soluble Thiamine Cashew Nuts, Corn, Wheat flour,
Cabbage, Milk, Meat
Beriberi, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome
Vitamin B2 Water-soluble Riboflavin Sprouted gram and
wheat , Beef liver,
Milk, Mushrooms, Bananas.
Ariboflavinosis, glossitis, angular stomatitis
Vitamin B3 Water-soluble Niacin Molasses, Green Peas, Sweet Potatoes,
Liver, Egg yolk, Mushrooms, Milk Products
Vitamin B5 Water-soluble Pantothenic Acid Yoghurt, egg yolk, Meat, Broccoli,
Kidney, Peanuts, Chicken, Milk,
legumes, mushrooms, avocado
peripheral neuropathy
Vitamin B6 Water-soluble Pyridoxine Food crops, Sprouted Seed, Meat,
mushrooms, Leafy vegetables
Anemia peripheral neuropathy
Vitamin B7 Water-soluble Biotin Cereals, Yeast, Cauliflower, Peas, egg yolk, Milk, TomatoesDermatitis, enteritis
Vitamin B9 Water-soluble Folic Acid Citrus fruits, green leafy vegetables,
whole grains, legumes, beets
Deficiency during pregnancy is associated with birth defects, such as neural tube defects
Vitamin B12 Water-soluble Cyacobalamin Fish, meat, poultry, eggs, milk Megaloblastic anemia / Pernicious anaemia

Previous year questions on this topic

Q1. Which of the following is known as Vitamin B1? [SSC Section Officer (Audit) 2001]
Answer: Thiamin

Q2. Night blindness results from the deficiency of —[SSC CPO Sub-Inspector 2003]
Answer: Vitamin-A

Q3. Which vitamin helps in blood coagulation? [SSC Section Officer (Audit) 2003]
Answer: Vitamin-K

Q4. Which of the following is a rich source of Vitamin B-12?[SSC CPO Sub-Inspector 2004]
Answer: Milk

Q5. Xerophthalmia is a deficiency disease caused by a lack of?[SSC Tax Assistant (Income Tax & Central Excise) 2004]
Answer: Vitamin A

Q6. Bleeding of gums and loosening of teeth is caused due to deficiency of?
Answer: Vitamin C

Q7. Deficiency of vitamin D in children causes? [SSC CPO Sub-Inspector 2006]
Answer: Rickets

Q8. Scurvy is a disease that is caused due to the deficiency of which vitamin?. [SSC CPO Sub-Inspector 2006]
Answer: Vitamin C

Q9. Deficiency of Vitamin B6 in man causes? [SSC Section Officer (Audit) 2008]
Answer: Anaemia

Q10. The metal, which is a constituent of vitamin B12 is__ [SSC Section Officer (Audit) 2008]
Answer: Cobalt

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) on Vitamins

Q1. What is the scientific name of vitamin B12?

Answer: Cyanocobalamin (Vitamin B12, also called cobalamin)

Q2. What is vitamin K called?

Answer: Phylloquinone (It is a Fat-soluble vitamin)

Q3. Riboflavin is the chemical name of which vitamin?

Answer: Vitamin B2

Q4. What is the chemical name of vitamin C?

Answer: Ascorbic acid

Q5. The RBC deficiency a deficiency disease of which vitamin?

Answer: Vitamin B12

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