Vitamins, their Sources, Chemical Names, and Deficiency disease is a vital topics in general science sections of almost all competitive exams. In the below chart, we have provided the Scientific Name of Vitamins along with Sources, the solubility of vitamins, and their deficiency disease.
What are Vitamins?
• A Vitamin is an organic compound that is needed in small amounts for the proper functioning of all the biological activities of a living organism.
• Adequate amounts of essential nutrients (Like vitamins) cannot be synthesized in the organism, and therefore must be obtained through food.
• Due to the small amount needed, vitamins are often considered micronutrients. They play an important role in our body functions like metabolism, immunity, and digestion.
• The term “vitamin” was derived from “vitamine, Here ‘vita’ means ‘life’.
• The word ‘Vitamine’ was coined in 1912 by the Polish biochemist Casimir Funk.
• An English biochemist “Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins” in the year 1929 was awarded the Nobel Prize for the discovery of vitamins.
Classification Of Vitamins
• Based on physical and biological activity, Vitamins are classified as either water-soluble or fat-soluble.
In humans 4 fat-soluble vitamins are:
1. Vitamin A
2. Vitamin D
3. Vitamin E
4. Vitamin K
In humans 10 Water-soluble vitamins are:
1. Vitamin B7 (Biotin)
2. Vitamin B3 (Niacin)
3. Vitamin Pyridine.
4. Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)
5. Vitamin C
6. Vitamin B9 (Folic acid)
7. Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
8. Vitamin B12 (Cyacobalamin)
9. Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid)
10. Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)
◘ How to Remember water-soluble vitamins?
• Just remember that all vitamins except vitamin BC are fat soluble. (A, D, E, K)
• Where C = Vitamin C and
• B = All B group vitamins (Vitamin B1, B3, B5……)
Chemical or Scientific Name of Vitamins and their Sources
The table below gives complete information about the different types of vitamins, the source of the vitamins, and the scientific names of the vitamins.
|Common Name||Solubility||Chemical Name||Food Sources||Deficiency disease|
|Vitamin A||Fat-soluble||Retinol||Carrot, Broccoli,Milk, Spinach,|
tomatoes, Egg yolk, Fish, Butter
|Night blindness, hyperkeratosis, and keratomalacia|
|Vitamin C||Water-soluble||Ascorbic acid||Green Chilli, Lettuce, Beans,|
Fresh citrus fruits
such as orange
|Scurvy, Bleeding Gums|
|Vitamin D||Fat-soluble||Calciferol||Cod liver oil, Fish, beef, egg yolk, liver, chicken breast and cereals.||Rickets and osteomalacia|
|Vitamin E||Fat-soluble||Tocopherol||Vegetable oils like|
Cotton seed oil,
Sunflower oil, Lettuce, Egg, Milk
|Sterility in males and abortions in females, mild hemolytic anemia in newborn infants|
|Vitamin K||Fat-soluble||Phylloquinone||Pork liver oil, Leafy vegetables,|
Cabbage, Broccoli, Beef and lamb.
|Vitamin B1||Water-soluble||Thiamine||Cashew Nuts, Corn, Wheat flour,|
Cabbage, Milk, Meat
|Beriberi, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome|
|Vitamin B2||Water-soluble||Riboflavin||Sprouted gram and|
wheat , Beef liver,
Milk, Mushrooms, Bananas.
|Ariboflavinosis, glossitis, angular stomatitis|
|Vitamin B3||Water-soluble||Niacin||Molasses, Green Peas, Sweet Potatoes,|
Liver, Egg yolk, Mushrooms, Milk Products
|Vitamin B5||Water-soluble||Pantothenic Acid||Yoghurt, egg yolk, Meat, Broccoli,|
Kidney, Peanuts, Chicken, Milk,
legumes, mushrooms, avocado
|Vitamin B6||Water-soluble||Pyridoxine||Food crops, Sprouted Seed, Meat,|
mushrooms, Leafy vegetables
|Anemia peripheral neuropathy|
|Vitamin B7||Water-soluble||Biotin||Cereals, Yeast, Cauliflower, Peas, egg yolk, Milk, Tomatoes||Dermatitis, enteritis|
|Vitamin B9||Water-soluble||Folic Acid||Citrus fruits, green leafy vegetables,|
whole grains, legumes, beets
|Deficiency during pregnancy is associated with birth defects, such as neural tube defects|
|Vitamin B12||Water-soluble||Cyacobalamin||Fish, meat, poultry, eggs, milk||Megaloblastic anemia / Pernicious anaemia|
Previous year questions on this topic
Q1. Which of the following is known as Vitamin B1? [SSC Section Officer (Audit) 2001]
Q2. Night blindness results from the deficiency of —[SSC CPO Sub-Inspector 2003]
Q3. Which vitamin helps in blood coagulation? [SSC Section Officer (Audit) 2003]
Q4. Which of the following is a rich source of Vitamin B-12?[SSC CPO Sub-Inspector 2004]
Q5. Xerophthalmia is a deficiency disease caused by a lack of?[SSC Tax Assistant (Income Tax & Central Excise) 2004]
Answer: Vitamin A
Q6. Bleeding of gums and loosening of teeth is caused due to deficiency of?
Answer: Vitamin C
Q7. Deficiency of vitamin D in children causes? [SSC CPO Sub-Inspector 2006]
Q8. Scurvy is a disease that is caused due to the deficiency of which vitamin?. [SSC CPO Sub-Inspector 2006]
Answer: Vitamin C
Q9. Deficiency of Vitamin B6 in man causes? [SSC Section Officer (Audit) 2008]
Q10. The metal, which is a constituent of vitamin B12 is__ [SSC Section Officer (Audit) 2008]
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) on Vitamins
Q1. What is the scientific name of vitamin B12?
Answer: Cyanocobalamin (Vitamin B12, also called cobalamin)
Q2. What is vitamin K called?
Answer: Phylloquinone (It is a Fat-soluble vitamin)
Q3. Riboflavin is the chemical name of which vitamin?
Answer: Vitamin B2
Q4. What is the chemical name of vitamin C?
Answer: Ascorbic acid
Q5. The RBC deficiency a deficiency disease of which vitamin?
Answer: Vitamin B12