What do you mean by isotopes?

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Question: What do you mean by isotopes?

Answer:

Isotopes are variants of a chemical element that have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons in their atomic nuclei.

Explanation

What are isotopes?

  • Definition: Isotopes are different forms of an element that have the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei but differ in the number of neutrons.
  • Example: Hydrogen has three isotopes – protium, deuterium, and tritium. They all have one proton, but protium has no neutrons, deuterium has one, and tritium has two neutrons.

Key Points

  • Protons and Identity: The number of protons determines the identity of an element. In the periodic table, elements are organized by their number of protons.
  • Neutrons and Isotopes: While protons define the element, the number of neutrons can vary. Isotopes of an element have the same chemical properties but may differ in physical properties due to varying atomic masses.

Table of Hydrogen Isotopes

IsotopeProtonsNeutronsExample
Protium10Most common
Deuterium11Used in heavy water
Tritium12Radioactive

Isotopes in Nature

  • Abundance: Some elements have multiple isotopes that occur naturally. The abundance of isotopes may vary, with one isotope being more common than others.
  • Stable and Radioactive Isotopes: While many isotopes are stable, some are radioactive, meaning they undergo decay over time, emitting radiation.

Applications of Isotopes

  • Radiocarbon Dating: Carbon-14 isotopes are used to determine the age of archaeological artifacts.
  • Medical Imaging: Radioactive isotopes are employed in medical imaging, such as in PET scans.
  • Nuclear Power: Certain isotopes are used as fuel in nuclear reactors for power generation.

In summary, isotopes are variations of an element distinguished by the number of neutrons in their atomic nuclei. While they share the same chemical properties, differences in physical properties can arise due to varying atomic masses. Understanding isotopes is crucial in various scientific fields, from archaeology to medicine and energy production.


More Important Questions on Isotopes

Why is it called isotopes? Origin of Isotopes


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