Important Mountain Passes in India UPSC notes

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Major Mountain Passes in India: The Mountain passes in India are an integral part of the Physiography of India of Indian Geography. Mountain passes are an important topic for upcoming competitive exams. Often 1-2 questions are asked in various exams. Here we provide important mountain passes of India, including previous year’s questions asked about this topic.

What is Mountain Pass?

• A mountain pass is a navigable route through a mountain range or over a ridge.

• A mountain pass can be formed in three different ways. e.g

  • The mountain pass between two volcanic peaks.
  •  Also mountain passes can be formed by the erosion of mountain ranges by water or wind.

List of Major mountain passes in India

Sl. NoMountain Passes nameState
1.Aghil PassLadakh
2.Changla PassLadakh
3.Khardung LaLadakh
4.Khunjerab PassLadakh
5.Karakoram Pass (Qara Tagh)Ladakh
6.Lanak PassLadakh
7.Lungalacha LaLadakh
8.Mintaka PassLadakh
9.Parpik PassLadakh
10.Sasser PassLadakh
11.Imis LaLadakh
12.Bara-lacha-laHimachal Pradesh
13.Chanshal PassHimachal Pradesh
14.Kunzum PassHimachal Pradesh
15.Lamkhaga PassHimachal Pradesh
16.Rohtang PassHimachal Pradesh
17.Shipki LaHimachal Pradesh
18.Kalindi PassUttarakhand
19.Banihal PassJammu and Kashmir
20.Burzail PassJammu and Kashmir
21.Pir-Panjal PassJammu and Kashmir
22.Zojila PassJammu and Kashmir
23.BomdilaArunachal Pradesh
24.Chankan PassArunachal Pradesh
25.Dihang PassArunachal Pradesh
26.Diphu PassArunachal Pradesh
27.Hpungan PassArunachal Pradesh
28.Lipulekh PassUttarakhand
29.Mana PassUttarakhand
30.Mangsha DhuraUttarakhand
31.Niti PassUttarakhand
32.Nathu LaSikkim
33.Jelep LaSikkim
34.Palakkad GapKerala
35.SengottaiKerala
36.Thalghat GapMaharshtra
37.Thalghat GapMaharshtra
38.Bhor Ghat GapMaharashtra
36.Sela PassArunachal Pradesh
39.Kumjawng PassArunachal Pradesh

Mountain passes in India map [North India]

Major Mountain Passes of India
Major Mountain Passes in India

Details about the important mountain Passes in India

Mountain Passes in Arunachal Pradesh

◘ Bom Di La (Arunachal Pradesh)
• It is situated near the western boundary of Bhutan in the greater Himalayas.
• The pass connects Arunachal Pradesh with Lhasa.

◘ Dihang Pass (Arunachal Pradesh)
• It provides passage between Arunachal Pradesh and Myanmar.

◘ Yonggyap Pass (Arunachal Pradesh)
• It is located near the Indo-China border.
• It joins Arunachal Pradesh with Tibet.

◘ Dipher or Diphu Pass (Arunachal Pradesh)
• Diphu Pass is lying at the trijunction of the India, China, and Myanmar border.
• It connects Arunachal Pradesh and Mandalay in Myanmar.
• It is an important land trade route between India and Myanmar.
• Diphu Pass lies on the McMahon Line.

Mountain Passes in Ladakh

◘ Mintaka Pass (Ladakh)
• It lies near the trijunction of the India-China and Afghanistan border.
• It joins north Kashmir with China.

◘ Parpik Pass (Ladakh)
• It is Located to the east of Mintaka ass on the Indo-China border.
• It joins North Kashmir with China.

◘ Aghil Pass (Ladakh)
• It is lying in the north of the K2 peak.
• It joins the Ladakh region of India with the Xinjiang Province of China.

◘ Khardungla Pass (Ladakh)
• It is situated near the Leh in Ladakh range.
• Earlier, It was the World’s highest motorable road.
• Khardungla Pass is the gateway to the Shyok and Nubra valleys.

Umling La Pass (Ladakh)
• Umling La is a mountain pass in Ladakh, India.
• The pass is located on the ridgeline between Koyul Lungpa and the Indus River.
• At present, It is the world’s highest motorable road between Chisumle and Demchok, at an elevation of 5,798.251 m (19,024 ft).

◘ Lanak La (Ladakh)
• Lanak La is a mountain pass in the disputed Aksai Chin region.
• It is administered by China as part of the Tibet Autonomous Region.

Mountain Passes in Jammu & Kashmir

◘ Banihal Pass (Jammu and Kashmir)
• Banihal Pass is situated across the Pirpanjal Range.
• It joins Srinagar in the north and Jammu in the south.
• A tunnel named ‘Jawahar Tunnel’ was built across this pass.
• This pass provides a railway link between Banihal and Kazigund.
• In the Kashmiri language, “Banihāl” means blizzard.

◘ Zoji La
• This Pass provides an important road link between Srinagar and Kargil and Leh.
• The road passing through this pass has been designated the National Highway-I.

Mountain Passes in Himachal Pradesh

◘ Debsa pass (Himachal Pradesh)
• It provides a link between Kullu and Spiti districts.

◘ Bara Lacha La (Himachal Pradesh)
• Bara-lacha la is a high mountain pass situated in the Zanskar range.
• This pass connects Lahul district in Himachal Pradesh to Leh district in Ladakh.
• The Leh–Manali Highway traverses the pass.
• A water divide is formed between the Bhaga river and the Yunam river by the Bara lacha la pass.

◘ Rohtang pass (Himachal Pradesh)
• Located on the Pir Panjal Range.
• It provides a road link between Kullu, Lahul, and Spiti Valleys.

◘ Shipki La pass (Himachal Pradesh)
• This pass connects Himachal Pradesh and Tibet.
• The river Sutlej enters India through this mountain pass.

Mountain Passes in Uttarakhand

◘ Lipu Lekh (Uttarakhand)
• This pass is situated near the trijunction of Uttarakhand (India), Tibet (China), and Nepal borders.
• It is used by pilgrims to Kailash-Mansarovar.

◘ Mana pass (Uttarakhand)
• This pass is situated near the north of the holy place of Badrinath.
• This pass connects Uttarakhand with Tibet.

Mountain Passes in Sikkim

◘ Nathula pass (Sikkim)
• This pass is situated on the border of India and China.
• It is a part of the ancient Silk Route.
• It connects Sikkim with Tibet.
• This pass is an important trade route between India and China.

◘ Jelep La pass (Sikkim)
• Jelep La is a high mountain pass between East Sikkim District, and Tibet Region, China.
• It connects the route Lhasa to India.
• The pass is about 4 km south of the Nathu La pass.
• The word ‘Jelep-la’ is a Tibetan word that means “The lovely level pass.

Mountain Passes in South India

◘ Palakkad gap or Palghat gap
Palghat Gap is a  mountain pass located in the Western Ghats.
• It connects Coimbatore in Tamil Nadu and Palakkad in Kerala.
• This mountain pass is located between the Nilgiri Hills and the Anaimalai Hills in Tami Nadu.

◘ Sengottai gap
• Sengottai is a town in the Tenkasi district, of Tamil Nadu, India.
• It is considered the gateway of southern Tamil Nadu and Kerala.

◘ Thal Ghat Gap (Maharashtra)
• Thal Ghat gap also known as Thul Ghat or Kasara Ghat.
• It is a section in the Western Ghats near the town of Kasara in Maharashtra.
• The Thal Ghat is located on the busy Mumbai–Nashik.

◘ Bhor Ghat Gap (Maharashtra)
• The Bhor ghat Gap was used as an ancient trade route by the Satavahana Dynasty.
• It connects the Choul, Revdanda, and Panvel ports located on the Konkan coast and the surrounding areas of the Deccan plateau.
• This ghat lies on the Mumbai Pune Highway.

Mountain passes in India map [South India]

Mountain Passes of South India
Mountain Passes of South India


 Previous Years MCQ’s on Mountain Passes in India

1. The road that negotiates four high passes of the world in the Himalayas is
A. Darjeeling to Nepal
B. Shimla to Dalhousie
C. Manali to Leh
D. Shimla to Kulu

2. Zojila pass connects
A. Nepal and Tibet
B. Leh and Kargil
C. Leh and Srinagar
D. Kashmir and Tibet

3. Which of the following passes lies in the Sutlej valley?
A. Nathu La
B. Jelep La
C. Shipki La
D. Sherabathanga

4. The pilgrims of Kailash Mansarovar have to pass through, which pass to enter into Tibet
?
A. Khardungala
B. Rohtang
C. Lipu lekh
D. Nathu la

5. The pass located in Himachal Pradesh is
A. Shipkila
B. Zojila
C. Nathula
D. Jelepla

More Sample MCQ’s on Mountain Passes in India

1. Which of the following pass connects Arunachal Pradesh with Lasa?
A. Chanken
B. Kumjawng
C. Dihang
D. Bom Di La

2. Which of the following pass located at the trijunction of Myanmar,
India, and China?
A. Dihang
B. Diphu
C. Kumjawng
D. Hpungan

3. Diphu pass connects Arunachal Pradesh to…………… in Myanmar, which is
an important trade route
A. Kachin
B Mandalay
C. Taunggyi
D. Shan

.4. Which of the following pass connects Arunachal Pradesh with China?
A. Chanken
B. Kumjawng
C. Dihang
D..Bom Di La

5. Which of the following pass located at the trijunction of Afghanistan, India, and China?
A. Aghil
B. Mintaka
C. Parpik
D. Khunjerab

6. Which of the following pass connects Ladakh with the Xinjiang province in China?
A. Khardungla pass
B. Parpik pass
C. Mintaa pass
D. Aghil pass

7. World’s highest motorable road passes through which mountain pass?
A. Khardungla pass
B. Parpik pass
C. Mintaa pass
D. Aghil pass

8.Which of the following pass connects Kullu, Lahul, and Spiti Valleys?
A. Bara Lacha La
B. Parpik pass
C. Shipki La
D..Rohtang pass

9. Which of the following pass located at the trijunction of Uttrakhand, Tibet and Nepal?
A. Mana pass
B..Lipu Lekh
C. Muling La
D. Niti pass

10. Traill’s pass is located in which state?
A.. Uttarakhand
B. Sikkim
C. Arunachal Pradesh
D. Himachal Pradesh

11. Banihal pass is located in which state?
A. Sikkim
B.. Jammu and Kashmir
C. Uttarakhand
D. Ladakh

12. Khunjerab pass is located in which state?
A. Jammu and Kashmir
B. Arunachal Pradesh
C. Uttarakhand
D.. Ladakh

13. Dihang pass is located in which state?
A. Sikkim
B. Himachal Pradesh
C.. Arunachal Pradesh
D. Uttarakhand

14. Hpungan pass is located in which state?
A. Himachal Pradesh
B.. Arunachal Pradesh
C. Sikkim
D. Uttarakhand

15. Mangsha Dhura pass is located in which state?
A. Himachal Pradesh
B. Jammu and Kashmir
C. Arunachal Pradesh
D. Uttarakhand

16. Parpik pass is located in which state?
A..Ladakh
B. Arunachal Pradesh
C. Uttarakhand
D. Jammu and Kashmir

17. Dipher pass is located in which state?
A. Uttarakhand
B.. Arunachal Pradesh
C. Himachal Pradesh
D. Sikkim

18. Lipulekh pass is located in which state?
A. Arunachal Pradesh
B.. Uttarakhand
C. Sikkim
D. Himachal Pradesh

19. Nathu la pass is situated in which state?
A.. Sikkim
B. Arunachal Pradesh
C. Himachal Pradesh
D. Jammu and Kashmir

20. Se la pass is located in which state?
A.. Arunachal Pradesh
B. Sikkim
C. Himachal Pradesh
D. Uttarakhand

21. Kumjawng pass is located in which state?
A.. Arunachal Pradesh
B. Sikkim
C. Uttarakhand
D. Himachal Pradesh

22. Lanak la pass is located in which state?
A. Uttarakhand
B. Jammu and Kashmir
C. Himachal Pradesh
D..Ladakh

23. Yonggyap pass is located in which state?
A. Himachal Pradesh
B. Uttarakhand
C. Sikkim
D. Arunachal Pradesh

24.  The Jelep la pass is situated in which state?
A. Himachal Pradesh
B. Arunachal Pradesh
C. Sikkim D. Jammu and Kashmir

25. The Debsa pass is situated in which state?
A.. Himachal Pradesh
B. Sikkim
C. Jammu and Kashmir
D. Arunachal Pradesh

26. Imis la pass is located in which state?
A. Himachal Pradesh
B. Jammu and Kashmir
C..Ladakh
D. Arunachal Pradesh

27. Which pass connects Sikkim with China’s Tibet autonomous region?
A. Rohtang pass
B. Sela pass
C. Changla pass
D. Nathu la

28. The Muling la pass is located in which state?
A. Arunachal Pradesh
B. Himachal Pradesh
C. Uttarakhand
D. Jammu and Kashmir

29. The Shipki la pass is situated in which state?
A. Sikkim
B. Arunachal Pradesh
C. Himachal Pradesh
D. Jammu and Kashmir

30. The mountain pass Baralacha la is situated in which of the following states?
A. Sikkim
B. Himachal Pradesh
C. Arunachal Pradesh
D. Jammu and Kashmir

31. The Mana pass is located in which state?
A. Arunachal Pradesh
B. Uttarakhand
C. Himachal Pradesh
D. Sikkim

32. Mintaka pass is located in which state?
A. Jammu and Kashmir
B. Uttarakhand
C. Himachal Pradesh
D. Ladakh

32. The river Satluj enters India through which pass?
A. Fotu la
B. Sela pass
C. Banihal pass
D. Shipki la

33. Sela pass is located in which state?
A. Himachal Pradesh
B. Arunachal Pradesh
C. Uttarakhand
D. Sikkim

34. Pensi la pass is located in which state?
A. Himachal Pradesh
B. Arunachal Pradesh
C. Jammu and Kashmir
D. Ladakh

35. The Bom di la pass is located in which state?
A. Uttarakhand
B. Himachal Pradesh
C. Sikkim
D. Arunachal Pradesh

36. The Qara Tag la pass is located in which of the following state?
A. Arunachal Pradesh
B. Ladakh
C. Jammu and Kashmir
D. Himachal Pradesh

37. Dongkhala pass is situated in which state?
A. Himachal Pradesh
B. Arunachal Pradesh
C. Sikkim
D. Jammu and Kashmir

38. Zoji La pass is located in which state?
A. Jammu and Kashmir
B. Uttarakhand
C. Sikkim
D. Himachal Pradesh

39.  The Fotu La pass is located in which state?
A. Jammu and Kashmir
B. Himachal Pradesh
C. Ladakh
D. Sikkim

Frequently Asked Questions on Mountain Passes in India

Q 1. Which is the highest motorable mountain pass in India?

Ans. Umling La pass is the highest motorable mountain pass in India. It was inaugurated in August 2021, is now the highest motorable pass in India.

Q 2. Which are the important mountain passes in Southern India?

Ans. There are 4 important mountain passes in Southern India, namely Shencottah Gap, Bhor Ghat, Thal Ghat and Pal Ghat.

Q3. How many mountain passes India?

Ans. There are more than 66 mountain passes in India, here we have discussed only the important ones.

Q4. Which is the largest mountain pass in India?

Ans. Dungri La Pass or Mana pass (5,608 m) is the largest mountain pass in India.

Q5. Which pass connects Kashmir and Tibet?

Ans. Zoji La pass ( 13,000 feet) connects the valley of Kashmir with Ladakh.

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