42 UNESCO World Heritage Sites in India with Maps and Key Facts

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Here is an updated list of UNESCO World Heritage sites located in India. This topic holds great importance in various competitive exams such as SSC CGL, IBPS PO, RBI Grade B, CDS, UPSC, and IBPS Clerk. Currently, India has 42 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Recently, two additional sites in India were declared as world heritage sites by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee during their 44th session, which was held in China.

UNESCO World Heritage Sites in India with Maps and Key Facts
Also see: All Protected Areas of India

About World Heritage Sites in India

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage Sites are important places of cultural or natural heritage as described in the UNESCO World Heritage Convention, established in 1972.

India accepted the convention on World Heritage Sites on 14 November 1977.

The first 4 sites of India inscribed in World Heritage Sites were.

  • Ajanta Caves
  • Ellora Caves
  • Agra Fort
  • Taj Mahal

All these sites were inscribed in the 1983 session of the World Heritage Committee.

As of July 2021, two new sites in India are inscribed in the UNESCO World Heritage list.
They are Dholavira which is located in Gujarat and Kakatiya Rudreshwara (Ramappa) Temple, which is located in Telangana.

At present Maharashtra has the highest number of UNESCO World Heritage sites. (Total 5)

The Victorian and Art Deco Ensemble of Mumbai is the latest UNESCO World Heritage site of Maharashtra.

Number of World Heritage Sites in India 2023

Presently, there are 42 World Heritage Sites located in India.

Out of these, 34 are cultural, 7 are natural, and 1 is mixed (meeting both cultural and natural criteria) sites.

India has the sixth-largest number of sites in the world.

Latest Addition

Two new UNESCO World Heritage sites were added to India’s list in 2023, bringing the total to 42. The new sites are:

  • Sacred Ensembles of the Hoysalas (Karnataka)
  • Santinketan (West Bengal)

UNESCO World Heritage Sites: Global Statistics

As of September 2023, there are 1,172 World Heritage Sites found in 166 different countries.

Among these, 913 are cultural sites, 220 are natural sites, and 39 are a combination of both.

These countries are categorized into five regions by the World Heritage Committee: Africa, Arab States, Asia and the Pacific, Europe and North America, and Latin America and the Caribbean.

Also Read: UNESCO in News: Explore the Latest UNESCO-related Affairs

Top 3 Countries

Italy leads the list with 58 selected areas designated as World Heritage Sites, followed by China with 57, and Germany with 52.

Top 3 Countries with the highest number of UNESCO World Heritage sites.

  • Italy – 59 UNESCO World Heritage sites
  • China – 57 UNESCO World Heritage sites
  • Germany – 52 UNESCO World Heritage sites.
Top Countries in terms of number of  World Heritage Sites
Top Countries in terms of number of World Heritage Sites

Total UNESCO World Heritage Sites in India: Full List

Natural World Heritage Sites in India

Sl. NoSites NameStateYear
1Kaziranga National ParkAssam1985
2Keoladeo National ParkRajasthan1985
3Manas Wildlife SanctuaryAssam1985
4Sundarbans National ParkWest Bengal1987
5Nanda Devi and
Valley of Flowers
National Parks
Uttarakhand1988
6Western GhatsMaharashtra
Karnataka
Kerala
Tamil Nadu
2012
7Great Himalayan
National Park
Conservation Area
Himachal Pradesh2014

Mixed World Heritage Site in India

Sl. NoSites NameStateYear
1Khangchendzonga National ParkSikkim2016

UNESCO Cultural World Heritage Sites in India

Sl. NoSites NameStateYear
1Agra FortUttar Pradesh1983
2Ajanta CavesMaharashtra1983
3Ellora CavesMaharashtra1983
4Taj MahalUttar Pradesh1983
5Group of Monuments at MahabalipuramTamil Nadu1984
6Sun Temple, KonârakOdisha1984
7Churches and Convents of GoaGoa1986
8Fatehpur SikriUttar Pradesh1986
9Group of Monuments at HampiKarnataka1986
10Khajuraho Group
of Monuments
Madhya Pradesh1986
11Elephanta CavesMaharashtra1987
12Great Living
Chola Temples
Tamil Nadu1987
13Group of Monuments
at Pattadakal
Karnataka1987
14Buddhist Monuments
at Sanchi
Madhya Pradesh1989
15Humayun’s TombDelhi1993
16Qutb Minar and
its Monuments
Delhi1993
17Mountain Railways
of India
West Bengal (Darjeeling)
Himachal Pradesh (Kalka Shimla)
Tamil Nadu (Nilgiri)
1999
18Mahabodhi Temple Complex at Bodh GayaBihar2002
19Rock Shelters
of Bhimbetka
Madhya Pradesh2003
20Champaner-Pavagadh
Archaeological Park
Gujarat2004
21Chhatrapati Shivaji
Terminus (formerly
Victoria Terminus)
Maharashtra2004
22Red Fort ComplexDelhi2007
23The Jantar MantarJaipur, Rajasthan2010
24Hill Forts
of Rajasthan
Rajasthan2013
25Rani ki vav
(The Queen’s Stepwell)
Patan, Gujarat2014
26Archaeological Site
of Nalanda Mahavihara
at Nalanda, Bihar
Bihar2016
27The Architectural Work
of Le Corbusier
Chandigarh2016
28Historic City of AhmadabadAhmedabad, Gujarat2017
29The Victorian and
Art Deco
of Mumbai
Maharashtra2018
30Jaipur CityRajasthan2019
31Kakatiya Rudreshwara
(Ramappa) Temple
Telangana2021
32Dholavira: A
Harappan City
Gujarat2021
33SantiniketanWest Bengal2023
34Sacred Ensembles of the HoysalasKarnataka2023

42 UNESCO World Heritage Sites in India Map (Updated)

42 UNESCO World Heritage Sites in India Map (Updated)

Key points about UNESCO World Heritage Sites in India

Sacred Ensembles of the Hoysalas

▪ This nomination includes two clusters of monuments in Belur and Halebidu.

▪ These monuments date back to the time of the Hoysala Empire, spanning from the 11th to the 14th centuries.

▪ Hoysala architecture is a blend of Dravidian and northern Indian architectural styles.

▪ The temples in these clusters were constructed by followers of Vaishnavism, Shaivism, and Jainism.

▪ These temples are renowned for their intricate stone sculptures and carvings.

▪ The Chennakeshava Temple in Belur remains a significant pilgrimage site.

Santiniketan

Santiniketan was founded by Debendranath Tagore as an ashram in the second half of the 19th century.

▪ It later evolved into a university town associated with Visva-Bharati University.

▪ Santiniketan is closely linked to the life and philosophy of Rabindranath Tagore, the prominent figure of the Bengali Renaissance.

▪ The prayer hall is a notable feature of Santiniketan.

Mahabodhi Temple

▪ Located in Bodh Gaya, Bihar, India.
▪ Said to be the place where the Buddha attained enlightenment.
▪ Houses a descendant of the Bodhi Tree under which the Buddha gained enlightenment.

▪ A Significant pilgrimage destination for Buddhists for over two thousand years.

Manas National Park

▪ Manas National Park is located in the state of Assam, India.

Major year of declaration

▪ 1905: Proposed Reserve Forest.
▪ 1907: Manas Reserve Forest
▪ 1928: Game Sanctuary.
▪ 1950: Manas Wildlife Sanctuary
▪ 1973: Declared as Tiger Reserve under Project Tiger
▪ 1985: Declared a World Heritage Site (Natural) by UNESCO
▪ 1989: Declared as a Biosphere Reserve under the Man & Biosphere Programme of UNESCO
▪ 1990: Declared as a National Park.
▪ 2003: Declared as Chirang – Ripu Elephant Reserve under Project Elephant.

Flora
▪ The Manas National Park has more than 650 species of Angiosperms alone.
▪ Other commonly seen trees are Simul, Oxi, Sissoo, Khaie, Gamari, etc.

Fauna
▪ Manas is very rich in the population of the Royal Bengal Tigers.
▪ It has the largest population of the endangered Bengal Florican bird in the world.
▪ Other bird species are the Great Hornbill, Black-tailed Crake, Red-headed Trogo, Swamp Francolin, and Bristled Grassbirds.

Sundarbans National Park

▪ The area of Sundarbans National Park is spread over the two districts of West Bengal namely North 24 Parganas and South 24 Parganas.
▪ The maximum part of Sundarbans National Park lies in South 24 Parganas.

Flora and Fauna
▪ The Sundarbans Delta is densely covered by mangrove forests.
▪ The name Sundarbans is derived from the Sundari ( Heritiera Fomes ) tree found here.
▪ Sundarbans National Park is famous for the Royal Bengal tiger.
▪ It is also home to a variety of bird, reptile, and invertebrate species, including the salt-water crocodile.

Important Date
▪ The Sundarban National Park was declared the core area of the Sundarban Tiger Reserve in 1973.
▪ Declared a wildlife sanctuary in 1977.
▪ On 4 May 1984, it was declared a national park.
▪ It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site inscribed in 1987
▪ It has been designated as a Ramsar site since 2019.
▪ It is considered a World Network of Biosphere Reserves (Man and Biosphere Reserve) since 1989.

Nalanda 

▪ Ancient Buddhist monastic university located in Magadha, India (now Bihar).

▪ Considered to be the world’s first residential university.
▪ One of the greatest centers of learning in the ancient world.

▪ Located near the city of Rajagriha (now Rajgir) and about 90 kilometers (56 miles) southeast of Pataliputra (now Patna)

▪ Operated from 427 CE until 1197 CE.

▪ Played a vital role in promoting arts and academics during the 5th and 6th centuries CE.

▪ Destroyed and burned by the Islamic invader Bakhtiyar Khilji in the 12th century, resulting in the loss of over 9 million texts.

Khangchendzonga National Park

▪ Biosphere reserve and national park in Sikkim, India.
▪ Added to the UNESCO World Heritage Sites list in July 2016 as the first “Mixed Heritage” site in India

▪ Also included in the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Programme.
▪ Named after the mountain Kangchenjunga, the third-highest peak in the world.
▪ Covers a total area of 849.5 square kilometers (328.0 sq mi)

Kaziranga National Park

▪ Kaziranga National Park, famous for one-horned rhinoceroses
▪ It was declared a National Park in 1974.
▪ It has been declared a tiger reserve since 2007.
▪ It was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1985

Keoladeo National Park

▪ Keoladeo National Park was formerly known as the Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary.
▪ Keoladeo Ghana National Park is a man-made and man-managed wetland and one of the national parks of India.

Nanda Devi and Valley of Flowers National Parks

Location
▪ The Nanda Devi National Park and Valley of Flowers National Parks is a UNESCO World Heritage Site in Uttarakhand, India.

History
▪ The Nanda Devi was declared as Nanda Devi Sanctuary in 1939.
▪ It became a world heritage site in the year 1988.
▪ In 1988 the site was inscribed as Nanda Devi National Park.

Ajanta Caves

▪ 29 rock-cut Buddhist cave monuments in Maharashtra, India.
▪ Date back to the period between the second century BCE to about 480 CE.

▪ Paintings and rock-cut sculptures are considered masterpieces of Buddhist religious art

▪ Construction occurred in two phases:

  • The first phase started around the second century BCE.
  • The second phase took place between 400 and 650 CE or in a brief period of 460-480 CE

Ellora Caves 

▪ Complex of rock-cut Hindu temple caves in Maharashtra, India.
▪ Artwork dating back to the period between 600 and 1000 CE.

▪ More than 100 caves, all excavated from basalt cliffs in the Charanandri Hills.
▪ 34 caves accessible to the public

▪ 17 caves represent Hinduism, 12 caves represent Buddhism, and 5 caves represent Jainism.

▪ Each group of caves represents deities and mythologies prevalent in the first millennium CE, as well as monasteries of each respective religion.

Sun Temple 

▪ Structures dedicated to religious or spiritual practices related to the sun or a solar deity.
▪ used for activities such as prayer and sacrifice

Churches and Convents of Goa

▪ A collection of religious monuments in Goa Velha (Old Goa), India.
▪ Declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1986.
▪ Includes various churches and convents located in the state of Goa.

▪ Some of the most notable monuments include:

  • The Basilica of Bom Jesus
  • The Se Cathedral
  • The Church of St. Francis of Assisi
  • The Chapel of St. Catherine
  • The Church of St. Augustine
  • The Church of Divine Providence (São Caetano or Saint Cajetan)

▪ The monuments are significant for their architectural beauty, historical importance, and cultural value.

▪ They represent a unique blend of Portuguese and Indian architectural styles.

▪ They are also a testament to the important role that Goa played in the spread of Christianity in Asia.

Monuments of Khajuraho

▪ A collection of Hindu and Jain temples in the Chhatarpur district of Madhya Pradesh, India.
▪ Located approximately 175 kilometers southeast of Jhansi.
▪ Known for their Nagara-style architectural symbolism and erotic sculptures.

The Western Ghats

▪ The Western Ghats is a mountain range parallel to the western coast of the Indian peninsula.

▪ It covers an area of 160,000 km^2 in a stretch of 1,600 km.
▪ The Western Ghats are also known as Sahyadri.

▪ It spread over the states of Karnataka, Goa, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu.
▪ It is sometimes called the Great Escarpment of India.

▪ It contains a very large proportion of the country’s flora and fauna.
▪ According to UNESCO, the Western Ghats are older than the Himalayas.

▪ They influence Indian monsoon weather patterns by intercepting the rain-laden monsoon winds that sweep in from the southwest during late summer.

▪ The Western Ghats block southwest monsoon winds from reaching the Deccan Plateau.
▪ The average elevation is around 1,200 m (3,900 ft).
▪ The area is one of the world’s ten “hottest biodiversity hotspots.”

Pattadakal Monuments

▪ Pattadakal, also known as Raktapura, is a collection of Hindu and Jain temples dating back to the 7th and 8th centuries CE.

▪ It can be found in the northern Karnataka region of India, situated on the western bank of the Malaprabha River in the Bagalkot district.

▪ It’s positioned about 14 miles (23 km) from Badami and around 6 miles (9.7 km) from Aihole, which are both important historical centers of Chalukya architecture.

▪ Pattadakal is safeguarded by Indian laws and is overseen by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI).

Monuments of Hampi

▪ Hampi, also known as Hampe, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site located in Hampi town, in the Vijayanagara district of east-central Karnataka, India. The site is commonly referred to as the Group of Monuments at Hampi.

Qutub Minar and its Monuments

▪ The Qutub Minar, alternatively spelled as Qutb Minar and Qutab Minar, is a minaret and “victory tower” located within the Qutb complex.

▪ This complex stands at the site of Delhi’s oldest fortified city, Lal Kot, which was established by the Tomar Rajputs.

▪ Situated in the Mehrauli area of South Delhi, India, it is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The construction of this tower, which is one of the most popular tourist attractions in the city, was mostly carried out between 1199 and 1220.

Taj Mahal 

▪ Located on the right bank of the Yamuna river in Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India, the Taj Mahal is a mausoleum made of ivory-white marble.

▪ It was built by the fifth Mughal emperor, Shah Jahan, in 1631 as a final resting place for his beloved wife, Mumtaz Mahal.

▪ The complex spans over 17 hectares (42 acres) and features a mosque and guest house, all surrounded by a crenelated wall.

▪ The tomb of Shah Jahan himself is also housed within the Taj Mahal. The monument is renowned for its beauty and is commonly referred to as the “Crown of the Palace.”

Agra Fort 

▪ Agra Fort, also known as Agra’s Red Fort, is a significant historical fort located in the city of Agra.

▪ Constructed by the Mughal emperor Akbar in 1565 and completed in 1573, it served as the primary residence of the Mughal Dynasty rulers until 1638 when the capital was relocated from Agra to Delhi.

▪ The fort was referred to as “Lal-Qila” or “Qila-i-Akbari” in ancient times. The last Indian rulers to occupy the fort were the Marathas before it was captured by the British.

▪ In 1983, Agra Fort was inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Situated approximately 2.5 km northwest of the Taj Mahal, another famous monument, the fort can be more accurately described as a walled city.

Red Fort

▪ The Red Fort, also known as Lal Qila in Hindustani, is an iconic fort located in the Old Delhi neighborhood of Delhi, India.

▪ The fort served as the primary residence of the Mughal emperors in the past. It was commissioned by Emperor Shah Jahan on May 12, 1638, as he decided to move his capital from Agra to Delhi.

▪ The fort’s original colors were red and white, and its design is attributed to architect Ustad Ahmad Lahori, who is also credited with constructing the Taj Mahal.

▪ The fort is considered the pinnacle of Mughal architecture under Shah Jahan and seamlessly blends Persian palace architecture with Indian traditions.

Humayun’s Tomb

▪ Tomb built in memory of Mughal Emperor Humayun in Delhi, India.
▪ Commissioned by Humayun’s first wife and chief consort, Empress Bega Begum, in 1558

▪ Designed by Persian architects Mirak Mirza Ghiyas and his son, Sayyid Muhammad

▪ First garden tomb in India.
▪ Located in Nizamuddin East, Delhi, near the Dina-panah Citadel or Purana Qila

▪ Declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1993.
▪ Underwent extensive restoration work in recent times.

Fatehpur Sikri

▪ Fatehpur Sikri is a town in the Agra District of Uttar Pradesh, India, located 35.7 kilometers from the district headquarters of Agra.

▪ It was founded in 1571 by Emperor Akbar as the capital of the Mughal Empire, serving this role until 1585 when Akbar abandoned it due to a campaign in Punjab. The town was later completely abandoned in 1610.

Elephanta Caves

▪ The Elephanta Caves, located on Elephanta Island or Gharapuri, have been designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

▪ They consist of a collection of cave temples primarily dedicated to the Hindu deity Shiva. The island is situated in Mumbai Harbour, approximately 10 kilometers east of Mumbai in the state of Maharashtra, India.

▪ The site includes five Hindu caves, two Buddhist caves with water tanks, and a few Buddhist stupa mounds dating back to the 2nd century BCE. The island is located around 2 kilometers west of the Jawaharlal Nehru Port.

Mahabalipuram Monuments

▪ Mahabalipuram Group of Monuments is a set of religious structures that date back to the 7th and 8th centuries CE.

▪ These monuments are located in the coastal town of Mahabalipuram in Tamil Nadu, India, and have been recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

▪ Situated on the Coromandel Coast of the Bay of Bengal, these monuments are located about 60 kilometers (37 miles) south of Chennai.

Great Living Chola Temples

▪ The Great Living Chola Temples in Tamil Nadu, India, have been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site due to their historic and cultural significance.

▪ These Hindu temples were built during the Chola dynasty between the early 11th and 12th centuries CE and include the following monuments:

  • Brihadisvara Temple at Thanjavur
  • Brihadisvara Temple at Gangaikonda Cholapuram
  • Airavatesvara Temple at Kumbakonam.

Buddhist Monuments at Sanchi

▪ Sanchi Town in Raisen District of Madhya Pradesh, India, is known for its Buddhist complex, which is highlighted by the Great Stupa situated on a hilltop.

▪ The site is approximately 23 kilometers from the district headquarters at Raisen and 46 kilometers northeast of Bhopal, the capital of Madhya Pradesh.

▪ The complex is recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Mountain Railways of Darjeeling, Kalka Shimla & Nilgiri

▪ The Indian mountain railways refer to the railway lines constructed in the mountainous regions of India. This term mainly encompasses narrow-gauge and meter-gauge railways but may also include some broad-gauge railways.

▪ Among these lines, the Darjeeling Himalayan Railway, the Nilgiri Mountain Railway, and the Kalka-Shimla Railway have been collectively recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage Site under the name “Mountain Railways of India”.

▪ Additionally, the Matheran Hill Railway and the Kangra Valley Railway have been nominated for inclusion on the tentative list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

▪ The Nilgiri Mountain Railway is the sole rack and pinion railway in India. These railways attract numerous tourists every year due to their unique location and picturesque views.

Bhimbetka

▪ Archaeological site in Madhya Pradesh, India.
▪ One of the earliest traces of human life in India.
▪ Contains evidence of the Stone Age dating back to Acheulian times.

▪ Spread over 10 km (6.2 mi) and consists of seven hills and over 750 rock shelters.
▪ Some of the shelters have been inhabited for more than 100,000 years.

▪ Provides insight into the cultural evolution of early human settlement, from hunting-gathering to agriculture, as well as evidence of prehistoric spirituality.

Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus

▪ Railway terminus in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.
▪ Station codes: CSMT (mainline) and ST (suburban).
▪ Designed by Frederick William Stevens, based on an original design by Axel Haig.
▪ Construction started in 1878 and completed in 1887.
▪ Built to commemorate 50 years of Queen Victoria’s reign.
▪ Features an exuberant Italian Gothic style

Champaner Pavagadh Archaeological Park

▪ A UNESCO World Heritage Site in Gujarat, India (Panchmahal district).
▪ Founded by Vanraj Chavda in the 8th century

▪ Dotted with forts and bastions extending from the hills of Pavagadh into Champaner

▪ Features an array of cultural heritage monuments dating back to the 8th to the 14th centuries, including:

  • Chalcolithic sites
  • A hill fortress of the early Hindu capital
  • Remnants of the 16th-century capital of Gujarat state
  • Palaces
  • Entrance gates and arches
  • Mosques
  • Tombs
  • Temples
  • Residential complexes
  • Agricultural structures
  • Water installations (step-wells, tanks)

▪ Most prominent religious site: Kalika Mata Temple, a significant Hindu shrine atop the 800-meter (2,600 ft) high Pavagadh Hill

Jantar Mantar 

▪ Group of 19 astronomical instruments constructed in 1734.
▪ Founded by Sawai Jai Singh II, the Rajput king who founded Jaipur.

▪ Includes the world’s largest stone sundial.
▪ Located near the City Palace and Hawa Mahal.

▪ Instruments enable naked-eye observation of astronomical positions.
▪ Illustration of the Ptolemaic positional astronomy that was widely used in various civilizations.

Hill Forts of Rajasthan

▪ A group of six forts in the Aravalli Range of Rajasthan, India.
▪ Built and enhanced between the 5th and 18th centuries CE by several Rajput kings.
▪ Designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2013.

Forts:

  • Chittor Fort in Chittorgarh city
  • Kumbhalgarh Fort in Rajsamand city
  • Ranthambore Fort in Sawai Madhopur
  • Gagron Fort in Jhalawar City
  • Amer Fort in Jaipur City
  • Jaisalmer Fort in Jaisalmer City

Rani Ki Vav

▪ A Stepwell located in Patan, Gujarat, India.

▪ Believed to have been built by Udayamati, the queen of Bhima I, an 11th-century Chaulukya king

▪ Was buried under silt until its rediscovery in the 1940s.
▪ Restored by the Archaeological Survey of India in the 1980s.
▪ Inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in India in 2014.

Great Himalayan National Park

▪ Located in the Kullu region of Himachal Pradesh, India.
▪ Established in 1984.
▪ Covers an area of 1171 km2, with elevations ranging between 1500 and 6000 meters

▪ Home to a vast number of flora and fauna species, including over 375 fauna species and numerous plant species

▪ Protected under the strict regulations of the Wildlife Protection Act of 1972, which prohibits hunting of any kind

Architectural Work of Le Corbusier (Capitol Complex)

▪ Designed by the architect Le Corbusier.
▪ Located in sector-1 of Chandigarh, India.
▪ Covers approximately 100 acres of land.

Comprises three buildings:

  • Palace of Assembly
  • Secretariat Building
  • The High Court

Also has four monuments:

  • Open Hand Monument
  • Geometric Hill
  • Tower of Shadows
  • The Martyrs Monument

▪ Added to the UNESCO World Heritage Site List in 2016 for its contribution to the development of modernist architecture

Historic City of Ahmadabad

  • The walled city in India.
  • Founded in 1411 by Ahmad Shah I of the Gujarat Sultanate.
  • Served as the capital of Gujarat for six centuries.
  • Later became an important political and commercial center.
  • Symbolic heart of metropolitan Ahmedabad.
  • Recognized as a World Heritage City by UNESCO in July 2017.

Victorian Gothic and Art Deco Ensembles

The Victorian Gothic and Art Deco Ensembles of Bombay

  • A set of buildings in the Fort precinct of Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.
  • Consists of 19th-century Victorian Revival public buildings and 20th-century Mumbai Art Deco private buildings.
  • Recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2018.

Examples of Victorian Gothic buildings:

  • Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Terminus (formerly known as Victoria Terminus)
  • Bombay High Court
  • University of Mumbai

Examples of Art Deco buildings:

  • Eros Cinema (Mumbai)
  • Watson’s Hotel (the Esplanade Mansion Mumbai)
  • New India Assurance Building (Mumbai)

Significance:

  • Represents a unique and important period in Bombay’s history.
  • Some of the best examples of Victorian Gothic and Art Deco architecture in the world.
  • An important part of the city’s identity and heritage.
  • Popular tourist destination.

The Pink City

▪ The capital and largest city of the Indian state of Rajasthan.
▪ Population of 3.1 million, making it the tenth most populous city in India

▪ Famous for its pink-colored buildings, earning it the nickname “Pink City”.
▪ Also known as the Paris of India and the Island of Glory.
▪ Located 268 km (167 miles) from the national capital New Delhi.

▪ Founded in 1727 by the Kachhwaha Rajput ruler Jai Singh II.
▪ Designed by Vidyadhar Bhattacharya and one of the earliest planned cities in modern India

▪ Served as the capital of Jaipur State during the British colonial period and became the capital of the newly formed state of Rajasthan after India gained independence in 1947

Kakatiya Rudreshwara (Ramappa) Temple

▪ Hindu temple dedicated to Lord Shiva and built in the Kakatiya architectural style.

▪ Located in Telangana, India, at a distance of 15 km (9.3 mi) from Mulugu, 66 km (41 mi) from Warangal, and 209 km (130 mi) from Hyderabad.

▪ Constructed in the year 1213 CE by Recherla Rudra, a general of Kakatiya ruler Ganapati Deva (r. 1199–1262)

▪ The Temple complex, located near Ramappa Lake, comprises three temples and was built between 1212 and 1234 AD, designed and constructed by Ramappa, after whom the temple is named

▪ According to legend, the temple was regarded as “the brightest star in the galaxy of temples” by Marco Polo during his visit to the Kakatiya empire

Architectural significance

▪ The Ramappa Temple is a masterpiece of Kakatiya architecture, known for its intricate carvings, symmetrical design, and use of lightweight sandstone. The temple is also notable for its unique star-shaped platform and its floating brick roof.

Cultural significance

▪ The Ramappa Temple is an important cultural and religious site for Hindus in India. It is also a popular tourist destination, known for its stunning architecture and serene setting.

Dholavira

▪ Archaeological site in Khadirbet, Kutch District, Gujarat, India.
▪ Ruins of an ancient Indus Valley civilization city.
▪ Also known as Kotada timba.

▪ One of the five largest Harappan sites and the most significant archaeological site in India belonging to the Indus Valley Civilization

▪ Located on the Tropic of Cancer, on Khadir bet island in the Great Rann of Kutch within the Kutch Desert Wildlife Sanctuary

▪ Built between two seasonal streams, Mansar in the north and Manhar in the south, encompassing an area of 47 hectares (120 acres)

▪ Initially believed to be occupied from around 2650 BCE to 1450 BCE, but recent research suggests occupation may have begun as early as 3500 BCE and continued until 1800 BCE

▪ The city has faced repeated earthquakes, including a severe one around 2600 BC

UNESCO World Heritage Sites in India: Important One-liners

Q1. How many world heritage sites are there in India?
Ans. India has 42 world heritage sites as of 2023.

Q2. Which continent has the most world heritage sites?
Ans: Europe has the most world heritage sites.

Q3. Why should we preserve the world heritage sites?

Ans. World heritage sites are places of outstanding universal value to humanity. They represent our shared history and culture, and they are also some of the most beautiful and inspiring places on Earth. We should preserve world heritage sites for future generations to enjoy and appreciate.

Q4. How many world heritage sites are in Assam?
Ans. Assam has two world heritage sites.

  • Kaziranga National Park
  • Manas Wildlife Sanctuary.

Q5. Which country has the most UNESCO World Heritage sites?
Ans. Italy has the most UNESCO World Heritage sites, with 59.

Q6. How many world heritage sites are in Gujarat?
A6. Gujarat has four world heritage sites:

  • Champaner-Pavagadh Archaeological Park
  • Rani-ki-Vav (The Queen’s Stepwell)
  • Historic City of Ahmedabad
  • Dholavira- A Harappan City

Q7. Which state has the highest Unesco world heritage sites in India?
Ans: Maharashtra has the highest number of UNESCO World Heritage sites in India, with a total of six.

  • Ajanta Caves
  • Ellora Caves
  • Elephanta Caves
  • Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Terminus (CST)
  • Victorian Gothic and Art Deco Ensembles of Mumbai
  • Western Ghats.

Q8. How many world heritage sites are in Maharashtra?
Ans. Maharashtra has 6 world heritage sites.

Q9. Which specialized agency of UNO lists world heritage sites?
Ans: The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) lists world heritage sites.

Q10. How many UNESCO World Heritage sites are located in Tamil Nadu?
Ans: Tamil Nadu has three UNESCO World Heritage sites.

  • Great Living Chola Temples
  • Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram
  • Western Ghats.

Q11. Which country has the most UNESCO World Heritage sites in Asia?
Ans: China has the most UNESCO World Heritage sites in Asia, with a total of 57.

Q12. How many UNESCO World Heritage sites are in Karnataka?
Ans: Karnataka has Three UNESCO World Heritage sites.

  • Hampi Group of Monuments
  • Pattadakal Group of Monuments
  • Western Ghats

Q13. How many world heritage sites are in Italy?
Ans: Italy has 59 world heritage sites.

Q14. How many world heritage sites are in Rajasthan?
Ans: Rajasthan has four world heritage sites.

  • Amber Fort
  • Jantar Mantar in Jaipur
  • Keoladeo National Park
  • City of Jaipur

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Q1. How many World Heritage sites are there in India in 2023?

As of 2023, India has 42 UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

Q2. Which state is Ramappa temple in?

Ramappa Temple located in the Mulugu District, Telangana

Q3. Which is the 39th World Heritage Site in India?

Kakatiya Rudreshwara Ramappa Temple (Telangana) is the 39th UNESCO World Heritage Site in India.

Q4. Which are India’s 40th World Heritage Sites?

Dholavira and Ramappa Temple are the latest addition to the list under the ‘Cultural’ category.

Q5. Which is the first World Heritage city in India?

Ahmedabad is India´s first World Heritage City, located in Gujarat.

Q6. Which country has the most UNESCO sites?

Italy.
With 58 selected areas, Italy is the country with the most sites on the list.

Q7. What are the latest two UNESCO World Heritage Sites in India?

Santiniketan and Sacred Ensembles of the Hoysalas

Q8. Which is the 42nd World Heritage Site of India?

Sacred Ensembles of the Hoysalas located in Karnataka” is the 42nd UNESCO World Heritage Site in India.

Q9. Which is the 41st World Heritage Site of India?

Shantiniketan, a neighborhood of Bolpur town in the Bolpur subdivision of Birbhum district in West Bengal, India, is the 41st UNESCO World Heritage Site in India.

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