Generation of computer notes pdf

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Generation of computer: In any competitive exam, we ignore the computer fundamentals subject because only a few questions come from this subject. But, very simple questions are asked on this subject, and all the questions can be answered with a little preparation. So, here we have provided notes on the generation of computers.

Generation of Computer 1st to 5th

• Nowadays, the generation of computers incorporates both hardware and software, which together make up an entire computer system. But previously Generation in computer terminology denotes the changes of hardware technology in a computer. Initially, It was used to distinguish between varying hardware technologies.

• There are five computer generations known to date. Each generation has been discussed in detail along with its time period and characteristics.

First Generation of Computers (1946-1959)

• First generation of computers based on vacuum tubes.

• The period of the first-generation Computer is 1946-1959.

 Examples of first-generation computers are_
• ENIAC
• EDVAC
• UNIVAC
• IBM-701
• IBM-750
• UNIVAC-1 (Universal Automatic Computer)

Main features of the First Generation Computer
• Based on Vacuum tube technology
• Used machine language only
• Very costly
• Produced lot of heat
• Consumed Huge size
• Need of AC for cooling
• Consumes lot of electricity
• Unreliable
• Non-portable (Large size)
• Slow Input / Output process

 Second Generation of Computers (1949-1965)

• Computers of this generation used transistors.

• It supported assembly language as well as high-level programming languages like FORTRAN, COBOL.

Examples of second-generation computers are_
• IBM 1400 series
• IBM 1620
• IBM 7094 series
• CDC 1604
• CDC 3600
• UNIVAC 1108

The main features of the second generation are:
• Transistors-based computer

• It Supported machine and assembly languages.

• Generates less heat as compared to first-generation computers

• Smaller size as compared to first-generation computers

• Consumed less electricity as compared to first-generation computers

• Faster than first-generation computers

• Reliable compares to the first generation computers.
• Still very costly
• AC required for cooling

 Third Generation Computers

Third-generation computers are based on Integrated Circuits (ICs).

• It supported remote time-sharing, processing, and multi-programming operating system.

• List of High-level languages used in this generation
– FORTRAN-II
– COBOL
– PASCAL PL/1
– BASIC
– ALGOL-68

Examples of third-generation computer
• UNIVAC 1108
• UNIVAC AC 9000
• IBM-370/168
• IBM-360 series
• Honeywell-6000 series
• PDP (Personal Data Processor)
• TDC-316

The main features of the third generation are:
• Based on Integrated Circuits (ICs).

• More reliable than 1st and 2nd generations.

• More Smaller size

• Produced less heat compared to previous generations.

• Faster than vacuum tubes and Transistor-based computers.

• Lesser maintenance
• Costly
• AC required
• Consumed lesser electricity
• Supported high-level language

 Fourth Generation Computers (1971-1980)

• Fourth-generation computers are based on Very Large Scale Integrated (VLSI) circuits.

• This generation of computers, supported time-sharing, real-time networks, and distributed operating systems were used.

• All the high-level languages like C, C++, DBASE, etc., were used in this generation.

• Fourth generation computers were built between 1971 to 1980.

◘ Examples of Fourth generation computers
• Apple Macintosh
• IBM PC
• DEC 10
• STAR 1000
• PDP 11
• CRAY-1 (Super Computer)
• CRAY-X-MP (Super Computer)

◘ The main features of fourth-generation computers
• Based on VLSI technology
• Very cheap
• Use of Personal Computers
• Very small size
• Pipeline processing
• Portable and reliable
• No AC required
• Concept of the internet was introduced

Fifth Generation Computers (1980 to till date)

• Fifth-generation computers are based on Ultra Large Scale Integration (ULSI) technology.

• This generation supports Parallel processing hardware and AI (Artificial Intelligence) software.

• All the high-level languages like C and C++, Java, .Net, etc., are used in this generation.

♦ Examples of fifth-generation computers
• Desktop
• Laptop
• Notebook
• Ultrabook
• Chromebook

 ♦ The main features and Characteristics of fifth-generation computers
• Based on ULSI (Ultra Large Scale Integration) technology

• True artificial intelligence
• Multimedia features
• Development of Natural language processing

• More user-friendly interface
• Advancement in Parallel Processing
• Advancement in Superconductor technology

• Availability of very powerful and compact computers at cheaper rates.

Frequently Asked Questions 

Question 1: Fifth-generation computers are based on?

Fifth-generation computers are based on Ultra Large Scale Integration (ULSI) technology.

Question 2: Which electronic components are used in fifth generation computers?

Fifth-generation computers are based on Ultra Large Scale Integration (ULSI) technology.

Question 3: What are the examples of first generation computers?

Some example of first generation computers is ENIAC, EDVAC, UNIVAC

Question 4: What are the examples of fifth generation computers?

• Notebooks
• Desktop PCs of Pentium
• Workstations of SUN.
• IBM SP/2.

Question 5: What are examples of second generation computers?

• IBM 1400 series
• IBM 1620
• IBM 7094 series
• CDC 1604
• CDC 3600
• UNIVAC 1108

Question 6: What are the main features of 2nd generation computers?

• Transistors based computer
• It Supported machine and assembly languages.
• Generates less heat as compared to first generation computers
• Smaller size as compared to first generation computers
• Consumed less electricity as compared to first generation computers
• Faster than first generation computers
• Reliable compares to the first generation computers.
• Still very costly
• AC required for cooling

Question 7: When was the 2nd generation computer invented?

1949-1965

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